Greece’s debt relief plans come at high price for residents

Greece’s debt relief plans come at high price for residents


>>Sreenivasan: EIGHT YEARS AGO THE GREEK FINANCIAL CRISIS THREATENED THE STABILITY OF NOT ONLY THE 19 MEMBER EUROZONE, BUT THE GLOBAL ECONOMY AS WELL. NOW, GREECE APPEARS TO BE ON THE VERGE OF SOMETHING SOME NEVER THOUGHT POSSIBLE. WITH BUDGET SURPLUSES EACH OF THE LAST THREE YEARS, IT IS ABOUT TO EXIT THE HISTORIC MULTIBILLION DOLLAR BAILOUT PROGRAM THAT’S BEEN KEEPING IT AFLOAT. THE GREEK GOVERNMENT CALLS IT A SUCCESS, BUT IT’S COME AT A HIGH PRICE FOR THE GREEK PEOPLE. AS SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT CHRISTOPHER LIVESAY REPORTS FROM ATHENS.>>Reporter: ON A RECENT EVENING IN AN UPSCALE NEIGHBOROOHD OF ATHENS, WE FOLLOWED TINA PAPOTI TO SEE WHAT IS AN INCREASINGLY COMMON PHENOMENON HERE IN GREECE. A SURPRISE TAX INSPECTION.>>THE THING THAT WE WANT TO SEE RIGHT NOW IS IF THE BUSINESSMEN ISSUE THEIR RECEIPTS.>>Reporter: PAPOTI WORKS FOR GREECE’S INDEPENDENT AUTHORITY FOR PUBLIC REVENUE, WHICH WAS SET UP JUST LAST YEAR TO TACKLE TAX EVASION. AN ENORMOUS PROBLEM COSTING TENS OF BILLIONS OF DOLLARS A YEAR, TAX EVASION HAS BEEN SO WIDESPREAD HERE POLITICIANS JOKINGLY REFER TO IT AS A “NATIONAL SPORT.” BUT THAT’S CHANGING. TAX INSPECTORS ARE INCREASING PRESSURE ON BUSINESSES TO RECORD SALES AND PAY TAX TO THE GOVERNMENT.>>THIS IS OUR JOB. AND WE HAVE TO DO IT CORRECT. THIS IS THE LAW. WE HAVE TO LEARN TO RESPECT THE LAW.>>Reporter: IN FACT, TAX REFORM IS ONE OF SEVERAL MEASURES GREECE HAS BEEN FORCED TO ADOPT IN EXCHANGE FOR BAILOUTS THAT HAVE KEPT THE COUNTRY AFLOAT FOR THE PAST EIGHT YEARS, BAILOUTS WHICH WILL COME TO AN END NEXT MONTH. NOW ECONOMISTS ARE ANXIOUS TO SEE IF GREECE IS STRONG ENOUGH TO STAND ON ITS OWN. THERE’S A LOT AT STAKE SAYS PANOS TSAKLOGLOU, A PROFESSOR AT ATHENS UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS. HOW BIG HAVE THE BAILOUTS BEEN IN GREECE? HOW MUCH MONEY HAS IT TAKEN ON LOAN?>>ALTOGETHER THE LOANS EXCEED 260-BILLION EUROS.>>Reporter: MORE THAN 260-BILLION EUROS. THAT’S AN ENORMOUS NUMBER. PUT THAT IN PERSPECTIVE FOR ME.>>THIS IS SOMETHING THAT IS BY FAR THE LARGEST LOAN EVER GIVEN IN HISTORY. IN ORDER TO GIVE YOU SOME KIND OF ORDER OF MAGNITUDE, THERE IS AN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION THAT HAS THIS ROLE OF BAILING OUT. THIS IS THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. IF YOU TAKE THE FOUR OR FIVE LARGEST LOANS EVER GIVEN OUT TO COUNTRIES LIKE BRAZIL, ARGENTINA, RUSSIA AND SO ON BY THE I.M.F., STILL THEY DO NOT SUM UP TO THE AMOUNT OF MONEY GIVEN TO GREECE.>>Reporter: TO UNDERSTAND WHY SUCH LARGE BAILOUTS WERE NEEDED, TSAKLOGLOU SAYS YOU HAVE TO CONSIDER HOW GRIM THINGS LOOKED AT THE START OF THE GREEK FINANCIAL CRISIS IN 2010. WITH ITS HUGE DEFICITS, A BLOATED PUBLIC SECTOR, AND BILLIONS IN UNCOLLECTED TAXES, GREECE WAS ALREADY THE FINANCIAL SICK-MAN OF THE EUROPEAN UNION. THEN IT CAME TO LIGHT THAT GREECE HAD BEEN UNDERREPORTING ITS DEBT FOR YEARS. JUST AS THE WORLD ECONOMY WAS BEGINNING TO RECOVER FROM THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS, GREECE WAS ON THE VERGE OF BANKRUPTCY.>>IF THERE WAS A COLLAPSE OF GREECE THAT WOULD HAVE MEANT THEY SEE THE COLLAPSE OF SEVERAL OTHER LARGE BANKS THAT HAD LENDED TO GREECE. THIS MEANS THEY SAY THE GLOBAL ECONOMY WOULD HAVE GONE INTO A SPIRAL.>>Reporter: TO SAVE GREECE, THE SO-CALLED TROIKA, THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK, THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION, AND THE I.M.F. AGREED TO AUTHORIZE BILLIONS IN LOANS ON THE CONDITION THAT GREECE ENACT STRICT FISCAL REFORMS AND AUSTERITY MEASURES. PUBLIC SECTOR JOBS AND PENSIONS WOULD HAVE TO BE CUT. TAXES INCREASED. GREECE WAS PUT ON A STRICT BUDGET. BUT AS BAD AS IT WAS IN 2010, BY 2015 IT WAS EVEN WORSE WHEN A NEW GOVERNMENT CAME INTO OFFICE PROMISING TO END UNPOPULAR AUSTERITY MEASURES AND THREATENING TO DEFAULT ON THE LOAN PROGRAM IF IT DIDN’T GET BETTER TERMS.>>AT THAT TIME GREECE WAS ON THE BRINK OF LEAVING NOT ONLY THE EUROZONE BUT POSSIBLY THE EUROPEAN UNION, TOO.>>Reporter: GREECE WAS ACTUALLY CONSIDERING LEAVING THE EUROZONE?>>QUITE OPENLY SOME OF THE MINISTERS WERE ADVOCATING A RETURN TO THE DRACHMA, WHICH MEANS PERHAPS AFTER GREECE THERE WOULD BE OTHER COUNTRIES THAT WOULD FOLLOW AND THE EURO WOULD COLLAPSE.>>Reporter: A DOMINO EFFECT.>>PRECISELY. THIS WOULD HAVE BEEN VERY LIKELY TO HAVE EFFECTS FOR THE ENTIRE FINANCIAL SYSTEM OF THE WORLD.>>Reporter: IT WAS A STALEMATE, WITH THE AVERAGE GREEK CITIZEN IN THE MIDDLE, WORRIED THEIR LIFE SAVINGS MIGHT BE WIPED OUT. AT THE HEIGHT OF THE CRISIS, GREEKS WERE PANICKED THEY’D BE KICKED OUT OF THE EUROZONE, AND STARTED WITHDRAWING THEIR SAVINGS AT AN ALARMING RATE. IN ORDER TO KEEP BANKS FROM IMPLODING, THE GOVERNMENT PUT LIMITS ON THE AMOUNT OF MONEY PEOPLE COULD WITHDRAW: ONLY 60 EUROS PER DAY. THAT’S ROUGHLY $70. EVENTUALLY THE GREEK GOVERNMENT GAVE IN, AGREEING TO CONTINUE REFORMS AND AUSTERITY MEASURES IN EXCHANGE FOR A FINAL BAILOUT. BUT IT’S BEEN HARD ON THE GREEK PEOPLE WHO REGULARLY TAKE TO THE STREETS TO PROTEST. PENSIONS AND OTHER WELFARE PAYMENTS HAVE BEEN CUT UP TO 70%. THE SIZE OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR REDUCED BY ONE-FOURTH. THOUSANDS ARE THREATENED WITH LOSS OF THEIR HOMES TO FORECLOSURE. AND UNEMPLOYMENT, WHICH AT ONE TIME HIT 28% IS STILL HIGH AT AROUND 20%. AMONG THE HARDEST HIT ARE GREECE’S NEXT GENERATION. YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT IS ABOVE 40%. AS A RESULT, TENS OF THOUSANDS OF YOUNG GREEKS HAVE GONE ABROAD LOOKING FOR WORK. OTHERS LIKE KOSTAS AND ELMA ROUSIS HEADED FOR THE HILLS. YOU STUDIED HISTORY AND NOW YOU’RE HERDING GOATS IN THE COUNTRY. THAT DOESN’T SOUND LIKE A TYPICAL CAREER PATH.>>NO. IT’S DIFFICULT TO DO CAREER HERE.>>Reporter: IT’S DIFFICULT TO FOLLOW YOUR CAREER.>>YES, BECAUSE WE DON’T HAVE WORK, JOBS TO WORK HERE. IT’S DIFFICULT. VERY DIFFICULT.>>Reporter: ROUSIS SAYS HE WOULD MAKE ONLY ABOUT $470 A MONTH AS A PROFESSIONAL ARCHEOLOGIST, SO HE AND HIS WIFE DECIDED THAT LIVING OFF THE LAND WAS A BETTER OPTION.>>IT’S BETTER MONEY AND BETTER LIFE.>>Reporter: STILL, HE DOESN’T EARN MUCH, AND SAYS HE’S PAYING MORE IN TAXES NOW THEN BEFORE THE CRISIS. HOW MUCH MONEY DID YOU MAKE LAST YEAR?>>20,000.>>Reporter: 20,000 EUROS. AND HOW MUCH DID YOU PAY IN TAXES?>>10,000.>>Reporter: 10,000 EUROS.>>YES, YES.>>Reporter: SO, OF THE 20,000 EUROS YOU MADE LAST YEAR HALF OF IT WENT TO THE GOVERNMENT IN TAXES.>>YES, YES.>>Reporter: THAT’S A LOT OF MONEY.>>IT’S A LOT OF MONEY. IT’S TOO MANY TAXES. I HAVE TAXES FOR MY CAR. I HAVE TAXES FOR MY BUILDINGS. I HAVE TAXES FROM THE SALARY OF THE YEAR. TOO MANY TAXES. SO, IF YOU GATHER ALL THE TAXES OF THE YEAR YOU GIVE TO THEM 50%.>>OF COURSE I UNDERSTAND THAT SOME CATEGORIES OF THE POPULATION ARE HEAVILY TAXED.>>Reporter: SO THIS IS THE PRESEDENTIAL PALACE. DIMITRIOS TZANAKOPOULOUS IS GREECE’S GOVERNMENT SPOKESPERSON. HE SAYS THE BAILOUT MONEY IS BEING USED TO PAY OFF THE GOVERNMENT’S LOANS, AND HE ACKNOWLEDGES THAT WHILE THE COUNTRY HAS SUCCEEDED IN MAINTAINING A BUDGET SURPLUS THE LAST THREE YEARS BY RAISING REVENUES AND CUTTING SPENDING, THE AVERAGE GREEK IS PAYING A HIGH PRICE FOR THE CRISIS. I SPENT THE MORNING WITH A GOAT HERDER, WHO, JUST TO GIVE YOU SOME CONTEXT, HE TOLD US THAT LAST YEAR HE MADE 20,000 EUROS. 10,000 OF THOSE HAD TO GO TO TAXES. SO HE IS LEFT TO LIVE OFF OF 10,000 EUROS. I MEAN, THERE ARE A LOT OF PEOPLE LIKE HIM IN GREECE SUFFERING RIGHT NOW.>>I UNDERSTAND THAT THE BURDEN OF THE CRISIS IS HEAVY. PEOPLE HAD TO GO THROUGH SACRIFICES ALL THOSE YEARS AND WE TRY TO DO OUR BEST IN ORDER TO HEAL SOME OF THE WOUNDS OF THE CRISIS. AS FOR THE TAXES, THE TAXATION AVERAGE IN GREECE IS AROUND 42%, WHEREAS IN BELGIUM, WHICH IS THE HIGHEST IN EUROPE, IS 53%, IN GERMANY 48%, IN FRANCE IT’S AROUND 50%.>>Reporter: OF COURSE, IN THOSE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES SOCIAL SERVICES, LIKE HEALTH CARE, ARE CONSIDERED VERY GOOD. NOT SO IN GREECE. DR. CHRISTOS GEORGALAS IS A SURGEON IN A WELL-FUNDED PRIVATE HOSPITAL, BUT HE SAYS PUBLIC HOSPITALS IN GREECE ARE IN BAD SHAPE.>>FUNDING FOR PUBLIC HEALTH CARE HAS BEEN SLASHED, HAS BEEN REDUCED. IT WAS ALREADY LOW AND IT HAS BEEN REDUCED FURTHER AND THAT COUPLED WITH THE LACK OF ORGANIZATION HAS RESULTED IN A SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION IN THE HEALTH CARE AVAILABLE TO MOST PEOPLE.>>Reporter: HIS WIFE AMANDA AGREES. SHE’S ALSO A SURGEON, A RESIDENT IN A PUBLIC HOSPITAL IN ATHENS WHERE SHE MAKES LESS THAN $4 AN HOUR.>>THE CONDITIONS ARE NOT GOOD. WE ARE ON A CONSTANT BASIS OF LACKING MATERIALS, OF GAUZES, OF THE MOST BASIC THINGS WE DON’T HAVE. SO, THAT MAKES MY JOB HARD.>>Reporter: GEORGALAS KNOWS HE AND HIS FAMILY ARE MUCH BETTER OFF THAN MOST, BUT HE WORRIES ABOUT THE FUTURE OF HIS COUNTRY.>>THERE HAS BEEN A LOT OF DAMAGE DONE INTO THE SOCIAL FABRIC. A LOT OF PEOPLE HAVE PAID A VERY HIGH PRICE FOR THE CRISIS, ESPECIALLY THE ONES WHO WERE ALREADY LIVING AT THE EDGES.>>Reporter: DO YOU THINK THAT THOSE WHO HAVE SUFFERED THE MOST HAVE A BETTER FUTURE NOW THAT THEY’VE GONE THROUGH THIS CRISIS, NOW THAT THE BAILOUTS ARE COMING TO AN END? WILL THINGS GET BETTER?>>TO BUILD A SUCCESSFUL SOCIETY I THINK YOU NEED SOME BASIC PREMISES. YOU NEED A FAIR SOCIETY. YOU NEED AN EGALITARIAN SOCIETY. YOU NEED TO HAVE A STRONG SOCIAL SUPPORT SYSTEM, A GOOD PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM, A GOOD PUBLIC EDUCATION. NONE OF THIS EXISTS. I DON’T THINK OF ANY COUNTRY WHICH HAS MANAGED TO ADVANCE WITHOUT HAVING THIS. SO, I DON’T KNOW HOW GREECE WILL… WILL PROGRESS.>>Reporter: BUT HE WILL SOON FIND OUT. AUGUST 20 IS THE EXPECTED END OF THE BAILOUT PERIOD AND THE START OF GREECE HAVING MORE CONTROL OF ITS OWN ECONOMIC POLICY. GREECE HAS BEEN ASSURED NO OR LOW INTEREST RATES ON ITS LOANS THROUGH 2032. IT MAY NEVER PAY IT ALL BACK, AND WILL BE MONITORED CLOSELY BY ITS CREDITORS. THERE ARE DOUBTS GREECE CAN MAINTAIN ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE LONG TERM AND THAT THINGS WILL GET BETTER FOR THE AVERAGE GREEK CITIZEN. BUT FOR NOW THE GOVERNMENT IS BREATHING A SIGH OF RELIEF THAT THE WORST MAY BE BEHIND THEM.>>AFTER EIGHT YEARS OF TRAGEDY THAT WE HAD TO GO THROUGH, NOW WE ARE READY TO RETURN TO EUROPEAN NORMALITY, SO TO SPEAK. BUT I THINK THAT THE STRUGGLE DOES NOT END ON THE 20 OF AUGUST. WE HAVE MANY THINGS TO DO, AND MANY THINGS TO CHANGE IN GREECE IN ORDER FOR THE RECOVERY TO BE SUSTAINABLE AND VIABLE IN THE FUTURE.

Mucus Relief For Singers! Incredible Free Tips And Remedies For Singing Wellness! Ken Tamplin Vocal

Mucus Relief For Singers! Incredible Free Tips And Remedies For Singing Wellness! Ken Tamplin Vocal


Hey guys, welcome back again to Ken Tamplin
Vocal Academy. Today we’re going to be discussing how to get rid of mucus off of our vocal cords,
but before we do that, I think it’s really important to ask ourself one big question,
and the question is this: there’s an old saying “You are what you eat.” So the
question is what do you put into your body? I like to think of my body as like an engine of a car. And if I pour sludge into the engine of my car, I can’t expect high performance.
So with that said, nutrition plays such a key and pivotal role in staying healthy. And
if we have mucus on the cords, more times than not, it’s because our body is fighting
off an infection, or something’s just not right. So, for feeding our body cheeseburgers,
and pizza, and popcorn, and potato chips, and cococola and a bunch of crap, please
don’t expect your body’s immune system to perform at full capacity. So, but with
that said, there is a lot of really cool things we can do to countermand that, and to also
have a good immune function, but also some other remedies that can help us to get rid of mucus
off the cords. So, I’m going to start really quickly with some of my Go -To’s.
Now, I’ve toured the world for 30 years, and in the 30 years that I’ve toured, believe
it or not, I’ve only cancelled two shows. That’s right. You heard me, two shows, due
to cold and flu. One was a respiratory thing that I had, and another was a case of pneumonia
that I had. In fact, when I sang one of the videos, “How to sing like Freddie Mercury”
I actually Sang That Video When I HAD PNUEMONIA, believe it or not. You can even hear the congestion,
because I used to have post nasal drip, or sinusitis, and that’s another thing that
can cause mucus on the cords, is post nasal drip. So, maybe if we get time we’ll talk
about that, but first and foremost, what might Go – To’s are, for myself, is: Nutrition.
I really subscribe to a book by a guy named Dr. Fuhrman, it’s called “Eat To Live”.
Now, this book is predominantly focused on people losing weight. I’ll put it on the
screen so you can see it, but it’s really focused on Super Nutrition. So, I don’t
know that you can follow it to the letter of the law, but I’ll tell you what, man,
if you can follow some of what this book has to say, as far as nutrition, you are going
to be in the 80 percentile, or 85 percentile bracket of people that can eat and maintain
good vocal health, and to remove mucus from the cords, and so, and mucus from all over,
sinus infections, and whatever. Now, in addition, then, to that, once we’ve
established good dietary practices, one of the things that I do for colds, now colds
and flu are two different things, but one of the things I do for colds is just simply
take zinc lozenges. You do a zinc lozenge, you can do it every couple hours, five, up
to five times a day, and you can do it up to five, to six days for the week. Now, you
want to stop after that, because it can actually tear down immune function if you do it too
long, but it’s an extraordinary way that the minute you start to feel a cold or flu,
suck on a sink lozenge and chances are you won’t get it at all, and if you do it will
be cut in half, or less than half, and then the total duration of the cold itself will
also be shortened. So instead of having a cold for four or five days or something, you’ll
get it for a day, maybe two at best, at most. Now you’ve seen other things like Emergent-C,
and stuff like that that also has zinc in it, so there’s some cool stuff out there
that’s like that. Something else that I do that is just absolutely awesome: it’s
fairly new. It’s called liposomal vitamin C. This stuff is Rock Star good. And what
it is, it actually has an absorption rate, I think of over 1000 times that of a buffered
or ascorbic acid, and/or, like rosehips or something like that, regular vitamin C, a chewable
vitamin C, over 1000 times absorption rate, because the molecules are a lot smaller so
it can absorb and be retained into the body much better.
Something else that I do, and I love this stuff, it’s called Danielle L’Don’s
grape seed extract spray. It’s called anti-viral fungal fighter. And this stuff is really cool.
You spray it under the tongue, you can also do this every hour, every 20 minutes. I mean, it’s grape seed extract. It’s not going to hurt you. But if it’s bitter, under the tongue,
it lets you know you have an infection. And when it stops being bitter, you’ll start
noticing that your cold or flu has gone away. This stuff is absolutely awesome.
Something else that’s really, really good, ha, ha. it’s kind of a funny name… But this company
here, it’s called Wish Garden… This is a guy who’s very anal about stuff that he
makes, it’s called Kick Ass Biotic, heh, heh. True Story, that’s the name, I’ll
show you on the screen. And he has a great line of products. A product called “Get
Over It” and some other stuff. Anyway, he makes some really great healthy organic stuff
that includes echinacea and goldenseal. If you can’t get this, you can get all this
stuff online. By the way, I have no vested interest in any of this stuff. I don’t own
stock in any of these companies, nothing. It’s just these are things I know for a
fact that work, and have worked well for me to keep me healthy, especially on the road,
you know, with bad sleep, and sometimes bad food, time changes, weather changes, in and
out of cold air conditioning, hot conditions, and so forth… Dryness… But anyway, echinacea
and goldenseal by Zand. This stuff is awesome too, I highly recommend it. So, you can either
go with the kick ass biotic or you can go with this, they’re both really good.
Now I want to talk about biotics because a lot of people have taken a lot of antibiotics,
and I’m going to take a little side note here before I get into flu… But because
of that, we have lost a lot of the lactopro, the cool hairs that grab the good bacteria
from our stomach, and we’re really deficient in being able to retain these good bacteria.
So, with that said, I strongly recommend getting a good probiotic. Try to get the good refrigeratable
ones… And guys, I know some of this stuff, kind of, is a little expensive. I think this
is like about 50 bucks and it’s like a two month’s supply. But how much are you going
to spend on antibiotics at the doctor’s office or going to a hospital visit. I promise
you’ll spend a lot more than that just in synthetic things that actually don’t make
you well, but barely put a Band-Aid on things. So, or prolong situations at best.
Something else I like to do is oil of oregano, this stuff is really good too. Works for colds
and helps clear off some of the mucus on the cords. So getting back to echinacea and goldenseal,
or the kick ass biotic: you spray it in the back of the throat, and you, like elderberry,
and some other things that are in it, you just let it come, just gently go down the
throat and it’s super awesome. Something else that’s excellent. Excellent,
excellent, I’ll put it on the screen is Perio Wash. now, a lot of us have heard of,
you know, gargling with Listerine, for example… That’s like gargling with kerosene. If you
swallow that stuff, it even says it on the jar, it says “rush to the hospital immediately,”
you know, from swallowing this stuff, don’t swallow it.. Perio Wash is 100% natural, all
organic… Exceptional. You can gargle with that, it works so good, it’s so soothing,
especially for sore throats and again, like I said, mucus on the cords or a lot of gack,
a lot of gack in the throat. For flu, something that’s excellent is colloidal
silver. This stuff RULES, and why? Get the 1100 ppm or 1000 ppm, try to get up there.
A whole dropper full, once a day, 3, 4, or 5 days, the minute you start to feel a little
bit of fever, or chills, or something coming on, use this stuff, it will absolutely knock
out flu. Boom. Flat on its back, which is super awesome.
Something else that’s really, really cool: Nature has its own antibiotic: and it’s
just simply called GARLIC. You can take raw garlic and you can chop it up, put it on a
piece of toast, not too much, a clove or two. BOOM. Eat it. Give it the same respect you
would as an antibiotic, and it will absolutely rock your world and help you overcome a cold
and a flu both. It works for both, actually. Something else that’s really cool is just
ginger, man. Cut off a little sprig of ginger. Chop it up in some green tea, or some tea,
and slowly sip this. Ginger is excellent! Very excellent for colds and flu and also
getting rid of inflammation and gack on the cords.
Also guys, it’s helpful to take just a good multivitamin, you know, because we’re not
getting a lot of nutrition in our food and stuff, so, a good multivitamin just once a
day or twice a day, or whatever the prescribed thing is, absolutely awesome.
Speaking of something that we don’t get a lot every day as well, is vitamin D3. This
stuff is also excellent, and almost all of us are deficient in vitamin D three, so I
highly recommend this. And I know it sounds like a lot of stuff, but in the wake of what
I’m talking about it really, really isn’t. Something else that I also highly recommend
is Omega-3. Omega-3 oils. This stuff will help with brain function, and all kinds of good
stuff, and it’s just something that’s an absolute necessity in our diets. I actually
happen to like the cod liver oil, the lemon flavored… I forget what the name… Carlson’s,
I believe it’s called… I’ll put that on the screen too.
And then I’m going to talk about a couple more things, but lastly, about this subject.
This is incredible. This sucker right here is awesome. This company called my PurMist,
I’ll post this on the screen too, has made a humidifier that is literally hospital grade,
and it’s self-cleaning. This thing totally rocks. They even have eucalyptus tabs you
can put here in the humidifier, and you just put it on. They even have it with a strap.
You just do it maybe two minutes, three minutes a day, a couple, three times a day… Totally
clears out the sinuses, totally clears out the crap on the cords. Absolutely awesome,
guys. So with that said, I hope this was helpful
for you. I’m going to post all this stuff on the screen so you can see where to get
it. Go online and just research this stuff, and until next time, thank you for joining
me. Ken Tamplin Vocal Academy.

How to Avoid Yoga Injuries : Yoga Plow Pose

How to Avoid Yoga Injuries : Yoga Plow Pose


Hi, I’m Carolyne Heldman for Zenergy Yoga
Studio in Denver, Colorado on behalf of Expert Village. Poses like Shalabha, Sarvanga-Asana
and Hala-Asana, shoulder stand and plow your neck and your well, mostly your neck is really
at risk. Not scary, scary risk but you just need to take caution. The best way to prevent
any neck injuries is to use props. So we take blankets, two, three sometimes four even.
The folded nice edge, the smooth edge goes towards the back of the mat. You stack at
least two up. I’m going to use two but I’d prefer it if you use four. And then you find
your shoulder blades at the very very edge of the mat. So my shoulders are going to be
at the edge of the blanket my head off the blanket so that my neck is completely lifted
off of the floor. So there’s no pressure at all on the neck. The shoulders lay down, they’re
right on the edge there and my head is resting on the mat with no pressure at all on my neck.
No attachment at all. And you roll your feet up and over. Support your low back with your
hands and then walk your shoulder blades in towards one another, not down your back but
in and keep pressure on the low back supporting that back and keeping your neck safe.

Dog First Aid : How to Treat an Ear Infection in a Dog

Dog First Aid : How to Treat an Ear Infection in a Dog


Once you’ve got the spot dirty on your cotton-ball,
you’re going to change it; in this case I just flipped it over. Okay, once I’ve
gotten that cotton-ball quite mucky, I’m going to get another one. Clean, start with
a clean cotton-ball, you might want to open your container. Okay, and you can go deeper
than you would in a dog’s ear, then you would think you would in a human’s ear,
but its best to hold the ear up and go in, and try to clean the ear out from the top,
using your cotton-ball. Never probe too deeply in here; you don’t want to puncture the
eardrum. Okay, so once you’ve used your medicated cleaner to clean out the dogs ear,
if your vet has given you an ointment and typically you’ll get some sort of an ointment
from your vet, then you’re going to take the ointment, put a small amount in the ear,
and then you’re going to massage the ear, so you’re moving that ointment all through
the ear. Once you’ve done that, you can wait until the next time you have to make
the application. Follow the instructions that are on the medicine that you get from your
vet, Um, this one for example, is instill in ear twice a day, for seven days. Make sure
you follow, even if it looks like the ear infection is cleared up, make sure that you
follow through to the end of the time period that the vet has instructed you to do.

How a Sick Chimp Led to a Global Pandemic: The Rise of HIV

How a Sick Chimp Led to a Global Pandemic: The Rise of HIV


Here at SciShow, we talk a lot about the fascinating,
complicated, and often very weird stories of discovery and collaboration that led to
the science we know today. But one of the strangest is something we haven’t
covered in much detail before, and it’s a biggie: the decades it took to figure out
exactly what HIV and AIDS were, and how to prevent and treat them. Since the start of the AIDS crisis, some 70
million people have been infected with HIV, and 35 million of those people have died. Both those numbers are staggering in their
own way, and together, they tell the story of a disease that has led to an incredible
amount of loss, but also one that — if you’re lucky enough to have access to the right medicines
— is no longer a death sentence. So, in honor of World AIDS Day on December
1, we want to tell you that story. There’s a lot to cover, so we’ll do it
in two parts. This episode, we’ll go over how we figured
out what HIV is, when the infection morphs into AIDS, and where we think the virus came
from. Next time, we’ll look back to the earliest
treatments, the arrival of antiretroviral drugs, which were complete game-changers,
and go over the creative ways scientists are now thinking about prevention and possibly
even a cure. But first, the basics. HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is a
retrovirus that infects immune cells, most notably what are known as CD4 T cells. The “retrovirus” part just means that
the virus uses RNA — DNA’s more wily, less stable cousin — as its genetic material,
and that once HIV infects a cell, it makes a DNA version of its genome with a special
enzyme, then inserts that DNA into the host genome. If that sounds sneaky — well, it is. And it’s part of why HIV has been so difficult
to treat, which we’ll talk about more next time. Now, those CD4 T cells that HIV infects and
ultimately kills are a kind of white blood cell known as ‘helper’ T cells. When they recognize a threat, they pump out
proteins that help coordinate a bunch of different immune responses. You definitely want them around. HIV is spread by bodily fluids, including
blood, semen, vaginal fluid, and breast milk. That’s why HIV can be transmitted through
sex, dirty needles, breastfeeding, and any other swapping of fluids you might do — with
a major exception: saliva isn’t one of those fluids. Saliva is full of other stuff that prevents
HIV from being infectious, like antibodies and a bunch of antimicrobial proteins. So unless there’s a lot of blood in your
saliva for some reason, it can’t transmit HIV. When someone is first infected, they might
feel like they have a bout of the flu, with a fever, headache, rash, sore throat, and
muscle and joint pain. That’s because the virus is infecting lots
of cells and the immune system is trying to fight it off. But within a few weeks those symptoms pass
because by then the person has specific antibodies that can keep the virus from running totally
rampant. After that, they usually feel fine for a long
time — in many cases, a really long time, like several decades. Until, one day, they don’t, because the
virus has finally killed off too many T cells, leaving the body unable to properly defend
itself against pathogens — anything that might be dangerous or infectious. That’s when someone is said to have AIDS,
or acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Usually AIDS is diagnosed once the person’s
T cell count falls below 200 cells per microliter of blood, which is well below the normal 500-1500,
or if they develop what’s called an opportunistic infection. These are infections that anyone with a reasonably
strong immune system would be able to fight off, easy-peasy. But because HIV has obliterated most of their
T cells, AIDS patients get sick. And, they can die. Most of the time it’s an opportunistic infection
that killed them. So, some of that was probably familiar to
you, but pretend for a moment that you’ve never heard of HIV or anything else I just
mentioned. Because back in the ‘80s, we didn’t know
these basic facts. All doctors knew was that suddenly, healthy
young gay men were developing extremely rare infections and cancers — and, it was killing
them. One of the first people to notice the pattern
was an immunologist at UCLA. Between the fall of 1980 and the following
spring, he saw a string of five patients, all gay men in their 20s or 30s, with an unusual
kind of pneumonia. There was a fungus growing inside their lungs. Normally, the fungus was totally harmless
and would never infect the lungs, but in these men it had, and it was making it hard for
them to breathe. The patients also had oral thrush — basically
yeast infections in their mouths — and few CD4 T cells. By June, when the immunologist wrote up the
results for the CDC’s weekly Mortality and Morbidity report, two patients had died. A month later, a dermatologist in New York
chimed in with a similarly disturbing report, this time with Kaposi’s sarcoma, a rare
cancer where patients develop blotchy purple lesions on their skin. In two and a half years, 26 young gay men
in New York and LA had been diagnosed with Kaposi’s. Some also had the weird fungal pneumonia,
and 8 had died. It’s hard to imagine now, but at this point,
scientists had no idea what was making people sick. They didn’t know if it was some sort of
toxin or a pathogen. And if it was an infection of some kind, they
didn’t know how it was spreading. That meant they couldn’t warn people about
how to protect themselves. The association with gay men, though, was
certainly striking, and early on, many called the mystery disease GRID, for gay-related
immune deficiency. Lots of people would talk about it as the
“gay cancer” or “gay plague.” But the disease wasn’t limited to gay men. It was turning up in hemophiliacs — people
whose blood doesn’t clot properly and are treated with clotting factors taken from other
people’s blood. Doctors were also seeing cases in IV drug
users, women, infants, and heterosexual men. In particular, 20 recent immigrants from Haiti
had gotten sick, and none said they were gay. Those clues were important, because they told
scientists the disease — which had finally been given the name AIDS — was probably
infectious, and probably transmitted by blood. There were other diseases that spread in similar
ways, like hepatitis B. So in March of 1983, the CDC issued a warning
that doctors needed to be careful about blood transfusions, and that the disease seemed
to spread through both gay and straight sex. Debates about the specifics, including whether
it could spread through saliva, would happen later. But what was the infectious agent? The race was on for scientists to figure out
what was causing the disease. French molecular biologist Luc Montagnier
suspected a virus because at the time, the blood products hemophiliacs used were filtered
for things like bacteria and fungi. But viruses were too small to catch. So along with his colleague Françoise Barré-Sinoussi,
he searched cells taken from AIDS patients and found a retrovirus. Around the same time, Robert Gallo at the
NIH in the US also identified a retrovirus in samples from AIDS patients. Both groups published their work in May 1983,
and shortly afterward another team found yet another retrovirus. All the viruses had been given different names,
and at first, it’s wasn’t totally obvious that they were the same thing. But they were, and in 1986, the cause of AIDS
had been given an official name: HIV. So, HIV was the problem, but where had it
come from, and why had the epidemic struck now, in the decade of big hair and Michael
Jackson? While some researchers were scrambling to
identify whatever it was that made AIDS infectious, others noticed that macaque monkeys also seemed
to suffer from an AIDS-like disease. One group decided to take some blood samples
from these sick monkeys, and in 1985 they found a virus that was similar to HIV. It was eventually called SIV, for simian immunodeficiency
virus. Researchers started to think that HIV might
have come from our primate relatives, jumping the species barrier. After a lot of work, they figured out that
the virus behind the epidemic was very similar to the chimpanzee version of SIV, and they
were the ones who had passed it to us. But how exactly? There’s no real way to put this delicately,
but most scientists agree that the reason why SIV made the leap into humans — what’s
called a spillover — is because we had a taste for bushmeat, or wild game. In this case, monkeys and chimps. This is known as the cut-hunter hypothesis. In the course of butchering a chimpanzee,
some SIV-infected chimp blood enters a small cut on the hunter’s hand. Or, a bit of blood splatters in their mouth. The virus is close enough to human biology
to infect the hunter, and over time, if the hunter passes the virus along to enough people,
it evolves into the HIV we know today. Spillovers like these happened many times
— we can tell because the virus mutates quickly, and by looking at genetic differences,
we can identify multiple lineages of the virus, each one corresponding to a spillover. We’ve traced the current epidemic to just
one of these, called ‘M’ for main. By analyzing chimpanzee pee and poop, researchers
think the chimps who passed that version of the virus to us lived in southwestern Cameroon,
in the forests near the Congo. And based on the oldest blood samples we can
find that we now know have HIV in them, which are from 1959 and 1960, scientists estimate
that HIV-1 first infected humans around 1908. If that seems like a long time ago, well,
it takes a while for a virus to take off. By the 1920s, it’s thought that the virus
traveled downriver — in a person, of course — to the burgeoning city of Kinshasa, then
known as the Belgian colonial city of Leopoldville. There weren’t many women around other than
prostitutes, so experts think HIV spread that way, and possibly through injectable drugs
the colonists used to treat some tropical and venereal diseases. This was before disposable syringes, and nurses
were trying to treat lots of people with just a few of them, so the syringes may have only
been rinsed with alcohol before being used on the next patient. So the very methods meant to stop the spread
of disease may have actually been
encouraging it. With time, infected people in Kinshasa left
to go to other places, and they did the unavoidable: they brought the virus with them. Because the virus mutates so quickly, we can
group the viruses into 9 different subtypes and get a sense of how HIV traveled around
the world from Central Africa. Several subtypes spread to other parts of
Africa. Subtype C went south and then landed in India. Subtype B went to Haiti — and then, through
several quirks of history, came to the US. First, in 1960, when the Belgians left the
Congo, French-speaking Haitians started to arrive in the Congo to work as doctors, lawyers,
and other professionals. But with the creation of Zaire in 1965, the
immigrants felt unwelcome, so they went back to Haiti, bringing HIV with them. There, HIV expanded especially quickly, possibly
because of a plasmapheresis center where people could get paid to donate their blood plasma. The center used a machine that mixed the blood
of different donors, allowing viruses to transfer. By 1982, nearly 8 percent of a group of young
mothers in a Port-au-Prince slum were HIV-positive — an astoundingly high number. HIV is thought to have entered the US around
1969, with just one infected person or unit of plasma from Haiti. It took about a decade for anyone to notice,
but by then it was too late. The epidemic had begun, and HIV was not only
in the Americas, but Europe and Asia, too. And now that it was here, we needed to figure
out how to fight it. But we’ll get to that in the next episode
of this mini-series. In the meantime, thanks for watching this
episode of SciShow, and if you want to learn more about HIV and all kinds of other science,
you can go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe.

8 TIPS FOR FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS (**dont worry**) | Doctor Disney

8 TIPS FOR FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS (**dont worry**) | Doctor Disney


what’s up everyone welcome back to you
what’s up doc it’s the YouTube channel or it’s like a mid school journaling my
journey through med school med D anyway just want to congratulate the class of
2021 you’re about to start med school some of you already have but obviously
usually when students starting so I just want to do a video where I talk about
the top 5 things I wish I knew when I started med school looking back like
what I would have done differently look the class of 2021 let’s try to get 21
like first tip that I have is that you should buy first aid now let’s talk
about first aid first aid is a book that’s basically gonna be your Bible
throughout the med school and especially when you’re studying for the step exam I
wish I had it when I was starting because I think it’s a public health
major and so when I came to med school I didn’t know what was going on with very
first few months because there’s a lot of like the biochem genetic like bio
salvo and I didn’t have a strong grasp of what those things are and so when I
would go to class was just memorizing the powerpoints nobody came time for me
to study first step I opened up first date and I was going to the biochem
chapter and it was so well organized alekhya ler cellular genetics and
nutrition I don’t know why nutrition is in it so whatever talk about some kind
of process in biochem then right next to it it’ll say a disease that happens when
someone is deficient in one of these enzymes I was then that I’m able to
follow the story of what biochem is about now the thing about first aid I
know I’m talking a lot about first aid the other tips are nothing business so I
didn’t get first aid when I was starting med school and it wasn’t until December
that I received a letter mail from the AMA the American Medical Association
they said hey could you sign up for the AMA for four years it’s 68 dollars which
is what it is when you’re gonna go start in med school they’re gonna say hey
please sign up at $60 and you get like one free flash cards your textbook
depending on which school you go to or less what my school did I didn’t do it
coming Christmas time they sent me a letter at home and they said hey if you
sign up for AMA now it’s those sixty dollars but we’ll throw in the first aid
book the new version for you and I was like wow
because I was planning to buy first date anyway you have to my first date like
everyone does it’s a forty dollar book or $35 link in the description if you
don’t know where to find it I got the ami membership for two so I don’t know
if they’re gonna get it this year but they did it last year too I guess that’s
what they do every year that’s a cool trick that you could use it wait until
Christmas time they’ll mail you and let you know about it but I will recommend
for those of you who aren’t super strong in your Sciences or don’t have a strong
background I would recommend getting first aid now write all your notes in to
first aid because when you come back first step first date is like an outline
and all your notes from powerpoints will help you understand context of what’s
going on tip number two I found this out actually recently so if you’re a third
year watching this or anyone really I found out about this book I don’t know
is it backwards probably Peter switch all right so this book is backwards I
can’t tell this book is called the perfect HMP and I put the link in the
description for you there was actually a student from Robert Wood he told me
about this and it is so helpful the other topic like has why the person’s
coming in the chief complaint how old they are male or female and then like so
much information about them and it helps you like understand the patient-centered
courses that you’re gonna go through on the bottom there’s like review of
systems so like I wish I had this when I was starting that school because we like
learn all the things about patience and I love those courses to have all the
information here just helps you if you see this every single time you see a
patient don’t have this chart memorized in your head then the back side it has a
lot of physical exam stuff it has like the tough back or subject that you would
want to learn or go through if you don’t want to get it yet that’s fine you can
wait because this is more like a second year third year and Beyond kind of thing
I’m gonna kind of contact people who sell this thing and see if they can give
us the discount I put it in the future video I still wish I had a person second
year because we were learning it in different times medical history surgical
history review of systems we didn’t have it all at one time and so it was nice to
see it all laid out perfectly and really organized tip number three is to develop
a routine you’re gonna be doing a bunch of stuff
Oh bunch of stuff Monday you’re gonna study Tuesday you’re gonna go to the gym
Wednesday you’re gonna study Thursday you’re gonna go hang out with your
family Friday you’re gonna do this like the more you have in your schedule the
easier it is gonna be for your study because in med school you’re not
required to go to classes terminal schools and even we are required to go
to classes you have to so much other time to study that most students just
fall to the wayside and don’t use that time to study and end the procrastinate
I know it’s so easy to procrastinate a progressive thing sure you make about a
specific time every day make sure that you go to bed Pacific time every day
make sure that your body just accustomed to these things because if you just let
yourself be relaxed let’s all do it later all do it later you will fall to
the wayside and become the time to exams you will panic just like Lisa tip number
four don’t panic you’re not panic you got accepted to med school you are a med
student now you are a medical student so you are capable you will become a doctor
don’t panic don’t freak out there are gonna be days you’re gonna be like I
can’t do this there’s no way I’m gonna be able to you will be fine I think med
schools kind of accept students who are type-a which is like everything this to
be perfect everything needs to be done on time high intensity people but like
relax relax read every so often download the column
app if you want and do like a five-minute breathing exercise in the
morning just make sure that you have time for yourself failure is not a an
indication of who you are it is an opportunity for learning think of it
that way failure is an opportunity for you to
learn to do something differently everyone’s gonna fail in med school
everyone’s not necessarily in your grades but you’re gonna fail in making
this research project on time you’re gonna fail in volunteering this many
hours your you can do it all in life you just can’t and the earlier that you
recognize it and the earlier that you can deal with your failure the better it
is for you the healthier you will be everyone’s done anyone who tells you in
life that they haven’t failed is a liar because they’ve might just be thinking
about academically but there are more than one way there is more there are
more than one see I just filled in my English there is more than one way to
fail you see failure as an opportunity for
learning this leads into tip five make sure that you have a strong community of
people who are around you it can help you go through the motions of metal
because there are some days where going to be at your darkest and some things
are your brightest and you need to make sure that the people around you are
supporting you and are helping you and you can talk to them about anything
suppression is a mature mechanism to deal with problems in life but as our
psychiatry professor told us you cannot suppress everything at some point you’re
gonna explode and everything’s young come pouring out you need to vent it out
just talk to people have something you can talk to because I’m at school it’s
like I say it’s hard because it’s not hard and I think and the thing that
might be a separate video we do about medical education just think it’s poorly
structured but you do need a support system and I think anyone regardless of
who you are watching this you need a support something like and now we’re
gonna have another tip from Peter at the Falls let’s go another tip for med
school to make sure that you work out
every so often too soon you don’t die when you want vacations start to do real
things back to you Peter thank you Peter so that was just Peter
at the Falls he gave you a tip whether your ball in the gym or a Sports Club it
doesn’t matter to make sure that your body is active and you’re doing things
and make sure you’re eating right this is video real now going back to the
rest of the tips that was pretty cool on the promise
do not neglect your local nuts I had a medical student who came up to me and he
was the first year last year and he was I saw on the Ella grace I said hey are
you doing and he said I’m doing fine said Oh what are you doing this week and
he said oh I’m gonna study I said oh that’s boring he said yeah but
I was thinking of going home for my mom’s birthday but I really just need to
study and I looked in and I was like dude I respect your decision to stay and
study however I think it’s very important that you think about what
you’re gonna cut out from your life and if you don’t go home for your mom’s
birthday you’re probably not gonna go home in the future for someone else’s
birthday right I go for weddings you’re not gonna go home for funerals god
forbid and you start cutting out your parts of your life that are important to
you in order to succeed in this field I’m probably gonna have another video or
to talk about my problems with medical education how there’s so much stress put
on people’s back actually just saw the trailer for a movie called do no harm
it’s a documentary about a position of suicide and how 1 million patients will
lose their doctor to suicide every year I think that’s very real and it shows a
deep problem and out our education is structured not specifically like
targeting any particular schools curriculum but just there isn’t an
emphasis on Student Wellness and there’s a high expectation and I know there’s
some of you are watching this and like what we just need to suck it up we just
need to do it this is how it’s always been done the gap if that’s how it’s
always been done that’s fine if slaves never spoke up and said all
this is just how it’s always been done and slavery to still be around
I’m not equated the two flavor is absolutely infinitely worse but the idea
that we need to step out and recognize problems and change them is what is
important for us to do the problem is that a lot of students are cutting away
from their personal lives in effort to succeed in med school and they’re trying
to climb the ladder medicine and they just have people at
the top just badgering them now putting more hoops for them to jump through and
that’s all we have to do don’t sacrifice your parties or events that you want to
go to that are important to you make sure that you take time for yourself and
your self healing whether that’s in your room or that’s at a party whether that’s
with your family do what it is that’s important to you because that’s the
energy that’s gonna drive you through all of med school yeah so I just want to
leave you with one more tip this one I heard from a fourth-year who when I was
starting second year she told me about it and it was it was actually really
revolutionary for me and it has to do with your study style it’s gonna take
you a while to figure out how you study best and that’s okay everyone takes
their own time the advice that she gave me was to quote stay in your lane what
it means is you’re gonna be studying your own way and you’re gonna see your
friends setting a different way and then other people posting things online
saying oh I’m studying this way oh look I just did this so here’s a free study
guide and it’s great that we’re all sharing things but for those students
out there like myself it’s easy to fall into the trap of trying to do everything
and so I would I know that I learned best from videos until YouTube a lot of
stuff and that’s how I was learning so a lot of people would post online be like
I just read chapter three in Costanzo and I thought it was really good you
guys should check it out you know yeah yeah I should I should chickens oh yeah
I’m a week Costanzo and I start reading Costanzo and then by like the third
paragraph I’m exhausted and I can’t continue studying because that’s just
not how I said you guys I just made all these free flash cards and on commute
and feel free to use them yeah I’ll use flashcards yeah that’s good I
could do some like when I’m at the gym I’m go to the gym I start using all
these different resources that everyone’s posting but I never
completely finished one thing that’s useful for me and so what I would
recommend that you do and this is what the student her name is sorry you god
bless you sure dude some PowerPoint let’s also do some YouTube video let’s
do some Costanzo reading and then let’s also do some flashcards you get like 25%
of each of them but you never get the full picture of what you’re actually
studying because you never complete something – it’s both to its fullest so
like pick to do it to its fullest 100% don’t you completed them and then as
needed reference the textbook if that’s what you need reference an animation on
YouTube if that’s what you need use some flashcards if you can’t remember
some pathway that’s really difficult for you to memorize stay in your lane and
pick two resources when you’re studying and hopefully that will at least give
you some platform to build your study style off of it takes most people even
until second year to figure out how they study best so don’t stress out everyone
goes through it and reach out to your mentors or comment below I guess if you
need help you so much for watching please share around if you thought that
this was helpful and write in the comment and let me know if you want me
to talk about anything else you want me to talk about medical education if you
want me to talk about how I studied in med school or anything else I have some
ideas and things that I want to talk about but I want you guys to join me in
on this journey that we’re now all on getting we’re all gonna be doctors alright so take care what is it
be safe be strong be swag god bless you and I’ll see you in the next one what is
up everyone wow that’s it forever – just try it one more time so what I ended up
doing was I didn’t get first aid and then Christmas Wow post nasal drip or
something feel free to watch any of the other videos I’ll list them in here I’m
just kidding it’s gonna be here watch the other video I really like this video make sure you watch this video and she
wants this video and make sure you subscribe

Prov. firefighters

Prov. firefighters


NEW THIS MORNING… PROVIDENCE FIREFIGHTERS HAVE APPROVED A SETTLEMENT WITH THE CITY– THAT RESOLVES LAWSUITS ABOUT COST OF LIVING ADJUSTMENTS. A SECRET BALLOT VOTE WAS HELD TO RATIFY THE AGREEMENT LAST NIGHT– WHICH PASSED 70 PERCENT TO 30 PERCENT. THE NEW SETTLEMENT INCLUDES SEPERATE AGREEMENTS FOR ACTIVE FIRE AND POLICE AND RETIRED FIRE AND POLICE. IT ALSO PROVIDES FOR A SUSPENSION OF THE COLAS FOR A TEN YEAR PERIOD– AND REQUIRES MEMBERS TO ENROLL IN MEDICARE WHEN THEY ARE ELIGIBLE.