How To Build A Hospital

How To Build A Hospital


In Western Sydney, healthcare needs are evolving as our population grows and ages and people live longer. We’re transforming the way we deliver healthcare, and the role that hospitals play in our community to embrace emerging technologies and changing community expectations. Here at Westmead, we are part of the most exciting redevelopment of a health precinct in Australia. There’s a lot happening and we want to share with you all the work that goes into building the first part of our Redevelopment – a new hospital building. How do you build a hospital? First comes the planning. Then comes the building. The planning can take several years, as there’s a lot to consider. We care about our patients and the community and we have to ask ourselves some big questions. How can we help people to be healthy over the next 50 years? How can we better integrate our world-class research and education? How can we design and building infrastructure for the future? What does world-class clinical care look like for the next generation? To answer these questions we have to know what our health needs are now and how they will change in the future. We have to look at new ways of working. We have to develop the right models of care for our
patients. To do all of this we speak to our staff, patients, carers and our community. This is all done through project user groups called PUGs. PUGs work closely with patients, carers and architects. They take all the questions that we asked ourselves and the answers to design the new hospital building. PUGs are used at every stage of the hospital development. Find out who your PUG representative is and how to get involved. We really want to hear from you. So what does a PUG work on first? They develop a Functional Brief. The Functional Brief tells the planners how you work, how you deliver healthcare and how your department works with other areas of the hospital. This phase also sees us work out how other important services interact with clinical service delivery, like education and
research. A big focus is on innovation and finding a better way to do things. The next phase is Concept Design and this is where it gets really exciting. We get to start looking at drawings and pictures of the building, its size and location. From there we look at flow – how the patients and services, as well as staff, will move throughout the building and even how information travels between departments and across the precinct as a whole. But we go even further and look at how the precinct is going to interact with the transportation networks of the city and the surrounding areas. We have to test this again and again to get it right, even going back to the Functional Briefs and the Concept Design to make sure we’re holding true. That’s when we move to Schematic Design. It includes detailed architectural plans and layout for each floor, and it is at that time we have to do the budget planning to make sure that we stay on budget and meet our priorities. Then are ready for Detailed Design. This literally gives us the nuts and bolts of the new building – right down to the power points and the furniture. This is the plan the builder uses to create our new building. While the design is finalised by the Local Health District and the project team, through the tender and construction process, we must focus on transitioning into the new building. . You will often hear this referred to as Commissioning. There is Building Commissioning, where the project team ensure things like electricity, IT and air-conditioning are working. We must focus on Operational Commissioning. Our tools of the trade may have moved, departments that we may connect with may be further away or closer, and new technologies may be in our workplace. We must adapt to new ways of working and we must do that now. And that’s how you building a hospital. The planning alone can take over a year. We use the time between now and the opening of the new to introduce new models of care, to test new processes and procedures, to get used to doing things differently before we make the move, and to work out how we stay connected with with teams and services in the existing buildings. You’ll be hearing plenty from the project team because it’s a long and important journey that we are on. You see we’re not just building a hospital, we’re building new services, new networks of care and better ways of doing things. We’re building health and we’re transforming lives.

How a Helijet Air Ambulance Pilot Finds Peace In The Chaos

How a Helijet Air Ambulance Pilot Finds Peace In The Chaos


(radio chatter) Helijet, Bree speaking. Sure, I can check the weather.
I’ll give you a call right back. Hi Jordan, it’s Bree at Helijet. Cooper just called me about
Campbell River to Victoria. Go ahead with the details.
Ok, sounds good. We’ll just give the crew a
brief, get some fuel, and then we’ll give you a
call in the air on our way to the airport in
Campbell River. We fly patients for the BC
Air Ambulance Service where ever they
dispatch us to. We’re on call here at
Vancouver International. 24 hours a day.
Seven days a week. Generally, we’re bringing
the crew to them to stabilize the patient, get
them to a hospital to an emergency room. We either get a phone call
or a text messege. When it’s a text it’s
an auto launch which I think for all of us,
it elicits a very strong (quick breath) “Ok, let’s go!” And, “Where are we going?”
“How’s the weather?” And all the other stuff that
starts to come into play. (radio chatter) It’s very fulfilling to move
people that need help. I mean, we are a really
small part of it. We’re just the bus drivers. We’re picking them up
and getting them where they need to be. Paramedics are really saving
lives in the back but it’s rewarding to be
a part of that team. And to be a little piece in the
puzzle that helps patient care. While the environment that
we work in can be really spontaneous and demanding, when we are working and
focusing, it’s very calm and methodical. (radio chatter) Flying is so peaceful to
me. There’s just sky, water, ground, and a little
bit of air sound going past the aircraft. the aircraft.
That on its own is
just beautiful That on its own is
just beautiful but then the bonus of being
able to help people is really rewarding. Seeing the fragility of life,
it just makes you so aware of how short your life can be and to make the most of
absolutely every day. I talk to my kids about
that a lot. It’s such a perfect
balance for me. To be able to be mom and pilot
in a really rewarding job. In a really rewarding role. Always listen to your heart
because your heart will know what you are meant to do. And then when you are doing
what you are meant to do there will be a sense of calm and all will be right.

North West Air Ambulance Patient Story – The Boy Of Steel

North West Air Ambulance Patient Story – The Boy Of Steel


(Music starts) (Corinne Mason) It was on a Sunday evening
that we joined the M6 and as we were on the M6 my husband and myself could see and smell
diesel. Just as we’d noticed it, the lady in front of us, hit the diesel in her car,
spun and crashed into the crash barrier. Because we could see diesel in front of
us, we decided to pull over to the hard shoulder and get the children
out to safety. (Richard Mason) Well I got out of the car,
to walk down the hard shoulder to make sure the other driver was okay and as my family
were getting out the car, another two cars skid on the diesel and smashed into the car. (Noise of car skidding, crashing and
smashing into the car) Unfortunately, my son was getting out of the
car at the time, so I saw the car hit ours and then our car get pushed into the verge.
And my son go flying into the air and landing on the hard shoulder. (Music fades out) (New music starts) When I first got to him, he was broken on
the floor. He was unconscious. I didn’t know his breathing so I essentially
thought he was dead. (Corinne Mason) There was hundreds, if not
thousands of cars stopped still and I was just screaming and shouting, just thinking
we’d lost him. He was dead. As far as we were concerned he was unconscious, his head was
caved from the very top and all within five seconds. That split decision to try and get
him to safety, all went wrong. The land ambulance were the first people to
arrive. They were great. They got Fred into the ambulance and made an assessment. Well
almost instantly they decided that they needed the Northwest Air Ambulance. When the Air
Ambulance arrived, it was like a lifeline. It was like somebody had come to help us.
They were like heroes arriving. (Richard Mason) When he got to taken to the
helicopter, I was very distressed because he was obviously seriously injured but when
we saw the helicopter, we knew that he was going to get to where he needs to be quickly. (Corinne Mason) By Air Ambulance, it took
them fifteen minutes to get him to Liverpool Alder Hay Children’s Hospital but by car,
by land ambulance that would have taken an hour and a half. You know he could have bled
out. Anything could have happened but they got him there quickly and safely. (Music fades out) (New music starts) Fred had a decompressed skull after the accident,
which meant that his skull was pushed in, at the top corner. Fred was in Alder Hay for
only a week but he got the nickname, the boy of steel because they couldn’t believe that
this little boy that had been brought in under these circumstances had made such a miraculous
recovery. There was no long-term damage and we managed to get him home a week later. After
the surgery it was just a case of looking after him and making sure that he was
okay – physically, mentally and emotionally. We’re extremely thankful to the Northwest
Air Ambulance and we’ll never stop saying thank you. The Northwest Air Ambulance changed
the outcome for us. We don’t know what would have happened but what I do know is that time, the quickness of the journey changed
Fred’s outcome. (Richard Mason) The Northwest Air Ambulance
– we didn’t think about it one bit until we really needed it and I suppose that’s the
point of it. You don’t know until you need it. So they need all the money they can get,
to make sure that they’re there when you need them. I think we’d do the same again. We’d pull
over, but it does make you aware of how dangerous the motorway can be and how quickly things
can change, because we went from (Richard starts to get upset) We went from just a normal Sunday afternoon
out, to what could be only described as the worst day of your life. So yeah, things can
change very quickly. Fred was a very lucky boy. On that day, The Northwest Air Ambulance
made a massive difference. He couldn’t have got to where he needed to be as quickly. He
couldn’t have got the care he needed that quickly. Even he realizes how lucky he is.
He is bouncy. He is bubbly. So thank you very much. (Corinne Mason) It’s really important that
people contribute to the Northwest Air Ambulance if they can. It’s a charity, so it needs people’s
support. (Richard Mason) We didn’t realise it until
after the accident that it was a charity. They need a lot of money, to help a lot of
people. There’s no other charity service that provides this type of quick response, high-value
care. Very well trained individuals. You know, at the flick of a switch they can be there. (Richard and Corinne’s children) Thank you
North West Air Ambulance because if it wasn’t you I wouldn’t be sat here with my brother
now. Thank you. (Music fades out)

Helping the Nation Save Lives Since 1877 – St John Ambulance

Helping the Nation Save Lives Since 1877 – St John Ambulance


[Song] Place your baby on a nice flat surface, and tilt
their head back – don’t be nervous! [Man’s voice] Wasn’t Steve supposed to be sorting out on Friday? [Football commentator] He’s milking the moment! Just goes to show – you don’t have to be a footballer… [Princess] Then, one gives up to five back blows [Trainer] … under one year old is choking, you’ll notice that they’ll be unable to cry, cough or breathe [Voiceover on historical clips]…the next part of the journey. There will be that
touch of a loving hand, the look that speaks more than a play full of words. When you’re fit enough to be flown back to a home hospital
you begin to… … the one-man ambulance which the St John’s man is
driving, but it’s so comfortable that I’ll be more than one man… [Child’s voice] My mummy, she fell off a chair and she’s moving, and she’s not even getting up… [Man] I just grabbed her and carried out five initial rescue breaths in the hallway. The paramedic popped his head round the back of the ambulance and shouted ‘Well done, she’s alive!’ I couldn’t believe it, I’d saved her. [Woman’s voice] I think it’s very important that
children learn first aid because if they didn’t people like Billy wouldn’t save
people’s lives. If Bill hadn’t been to St John Ambulance, I would be alive today.

H145 provides air ambulance services to remote communities in Wales

H145 provides air ambulance services to remote communities in Wales


Being out there to fly is probably one of the most privileged jobs you can do in this aviation world. You know every day is a different day. We go and see people, we like I said before, they are having the worst day of their life, but we’re there to help them and seeing this job for the last eight years you know we do make a difference, especially flying these aircraft, especially with the team that we got and there’ll be a lot of people here today who wouldn’t be here today if it wasn’t for this aircraft. [Music] So the Wales Air Ambulance have four aircraft we got three H145s and also we got the H135 based in Cardiff which is purposely for the children’s air ambulance. We cover the whole of Wales. We obviously aim to deliver a service seven days a week 365 days of the year. We’re very excited about some of the work we’re doing. We’ve now got consultants onboard and H145 that we have with a Bücher fit actually is fantastic because we can take all the equipment in small sizes. We’ve even got blood on board there and blood products so it is unique. Yeah I’m happy with the H145. It’s an excellent working platform for us as a service. It gives us what we need as a team. It’s a very reliable aircraft. It’s got that working platform that we need. It gives us that assurance that we can undertake our roles effectively and safely. [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Applause] [Music] It’s a great tool for us, especially for single pilot operations. With the Helionix suite, it makes it much easier for us. Four axis autopilot when we do long transfers or when we do long-range Flights, especially here in Wales, it makes it very efficient, the flight, and it takes a lot of workload off the pilot. Safety is a vital importance and having that reassurance that the aircraft is reliable with all the safety Features, with all the intelligence systems, it does give you the confidence in what can be quite a challenging environment. It’s long distances. There are not big motorways across Wales and so we can get somewhere effectively and quickly by air rather than by land and it saves lives. It’s been proven. [Music] you [Music]

Autism – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Autism – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology


Even though everyone develops at slightly different paces Almost everyone hits the same general developmental milestones and learns the same sets of skills at about the same time more or less These are things like language and communication socializing cognitive skills like problem-solving and physical milestones like walking crawling and fine motor skills all of which progresses the brain develops If one of these doesn’t develop as scheduled depending on the severity it may be described as a type of neurodevelopmental disorder neuro referring to the brain Especially when certain skills related to socializing and communicating don’t proceed as normally it can result in isolation Which is where the name autism originated since Auto means self? So autism refers to a condition where somebody might be removed from social interaction in communication leaving them alone or isolated Before 2013 the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for mental disorders the fourth edition or the DSM 4 Described autism as one of several pervasive developmental disorders, which also includes Asperger’s syndrome childhood disintegrative disorder and those not otherwise specified or pdd-nos Asperger’s syndrome was used for children that appeared to have characteristics of autism like difficulties with social interactions or nonverbal communication But don’t generally have significant delays in language or cognitive development and therefore Asperger’s syndrome was sometimes referred to as a high-functioning form of autism Childhood disintegrative disorder was used to describe late onset of developmental delays so these children developed normally for their age But then they seem to lose the acquired social and communication skills sometime between age 2 and 10 Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified is essentially a catch-all category in which patients meet some, but not all features of autism Asperger’s syndrome or childhood disintegrative disorder Researchers found however that separate diagnosis of these pervasive develop disorders weren’t consistent across different clinics since they tend to have very similar signs and symptoms as of 2013 the dsm-5 a new revised edition Removed these terms and replace them with autism spectrum disorder or ASD which Encompasses all the previous pervasive developmental disorders, but uses a scale or a spectrum that differentiates based on the severity of two major areas social communication and interaction deficits and restrictive or repetitive behavior interests and activities For the social and communication area there are four subcategories that clinicians look for deficits the first is social reciprocity Which refers to how children respond or reciprocate in social interactions? so like how the behavior of one person influences the other and vice versa an example impairment in this area might be referring to being alone and not taking a role in social games a Second area of potential deficit is joint attention Which is the state of wanting to share an interest with someone else so it’s like hey check out this awesome thing I found So an example impairment in this area might be a child not sharing their interests or amusement in an object with their parent next there’s nonverbal communication, which refers to difficulties either using nonverbal communication themselves or interpreting nonverbal cues from someone else so maybe the child won’t put their arms out when they want to be picked up or Maybe they won’t be able to tell when a parent’s upset even if the parents frowning and crossing their arms The last subcategory of communication deficits is in social relationships So children have trouble developing and maintaining relationships So maybe the child has a hard time making friends or they’re able to make friends, but the reliever tends to drive the friends away The other major area is called restrictive and repetitive Behaviors, and this category is pretty broad and can include a whole bunch of behaviors some being more well-known or characterized than others Like lining up toys in a ritualistic sort of way or flapping ones hands or imitating words or phrases the child might be fixed on certain routines like taking the same route every day to school or they might have restricted patterns of interest like having a very specific and in-depth knowledge of the Titanic or vacuum cleaners Children with autism spectrum disorder might exhibit one or more of these deficits and vary in how severe the deficit is with that in mind It’s important to remember that each child with autism spectrum disorder is going to have a different spectrum of symptoms and deficits Typically clinicians will try to observe these behaviors in the child looking for these possible deficits since these behaviors are often more well known by the child’s takers in the our by the clinicians like their parents or their teachers a Meaningful diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder relies heavily on listening to what others are observing at home or in school They might be given severity scores in each area which can help determine how much support the child’s going to need For example a severity level one would indicate the child needs some support for social communication they might speak in full sentences and engage in communication But normal back-and-forth conversation with others just doesn’t seem to work For repetitive and restrictive behaviors. They might have difficulty switching between activities On the other side of the spectrum a level 3 severity means the child needs very substantial support and on the social communication side They might display very few words of intelligible speech and rarely initiate an interaction with others For repetitive behaviors. They might be extremely resistant to change and their behaviors seriously interfere with their daily life It’s thought that using this scale of symptoms as opposed to differentiating between Pervasive developmental disorders will help give a more accurate and medically useful way to diagnose individuals For example those with what was previously described as Asperger’s syndrome would likely fall closer to severity level 1 than severity level 3 Generally speaking autism spectrum disorders thought to have a genetic cause which ultimately affects brain development specifically areas that affects social and communication behaviors Which genes are a combination of genes that are affected in an autism spectrum disorder though is still very much a mystery in? Addition there are a bunch of environmental triggers that have to be explored But at the moment there are no clear risk factors that have been identified with that said there is also no cure for autism spectrum disorder and Treatment or management has to be specifically and carefully tailored to each child and this includes things like specialized education Programs and behavior therapy that all seek to maximize quality of life and functional independence Alright as a quick recap Autism is a developmental disorder where an individual has difficulty with social interactions in community patien often leaving them socially isolated The disorder is along a spectrum of communication and interaction deficits as well as restrictive or repetitive behavior interests in activities a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder requires significant input from caretakers and management of the disease is highly individualized Thanks for watching If you’re interested in a deeper dive on this topic take a look at as Moses org where we have Flashcards questions and other awesome tools to help you learn medicine Otherwise you can always support us by donating on patreon subscribing to our channel or following us on social media You

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) – causes, symptoms & treatment

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) – causes, symptoms & treatment


Say you’ve got a huge presentation in front
of all your colleagues; you’re nervous, you’ve got quite a bit of stress leading
up to the presentation. That stress is completely normal, and really—probably useful in certain
situations since it can make you more alert and careful. After the presentation’s over
you feel the stress start to fade away, right? Well…for 3% of the population, the stress
doesn’t go away, and maybe that stress isn’t even brought on by a specific event and is
always just sort of always there. Either way, at this point it’s considered to be anxiety.
That anxiety might even get worse over time, and causes things like chest pains or nightmares. Sometimes the anxiety’s so severe that it
causes someone to be anxious about leaving the house or doing everyday things, like going
to work or school. This anxiety may be a sign of Generalized Anxiety Disorder, sometimes
shortened to GAD. GAD’s characterized by excessive, persistent, and unreasonable anxiety
about everyday things, like money, family, work, and relationships; even sometimes the
thought of getting through the day causes anxiety. If the anxiety’s persistent, then
it doesn’t seem to go away, if it’s excessive, it’s usually more than someone else might
feel, and if it’s unreasonable, they probably shouldn’t have a reason to feel anxious
about it. People who have GAD might even understand
that their anxieties are excessive and unreasonable, but they feel it’s out of their control
and don’t quite know how to stop it. People with severe GAD might be completely debilitated
and have trouble with the simplest daily activities, or they might be only mildly affected and
be able to function socially and hold down a job. Sometimes the feelings might worsen
or improve over time. In addition to having feelings of worries
and anxiety, other symptoms include edginess and restlessness, difficulty concentrating
or feeling like the mind just goes blank, and also irritability. These psychological
symptoms can also lead to physical manifestations of symptoms like digestive problems from eating
more or eating less. They might also have muscle aches and soreness from carrying tension
in their muscles. Finally difficulty sleeping is a really common symptom that can have a
serious impact on physical well-being, since the body’s not resting and can lead to issues
of chronic fatigue. Although the decision that someone’s worry
is excessive and unreasonable has a subjective quality, diagnosing GAD is aided by the diagnostic
and statistical manual of mental disorders, or DSM-V, this manual gives a list of criteria
to meet in order to be diagnosed with GAD. First, the excessive worry and anxiety has
to have been present for more days than not over the course of 6 months. In other words,
a person should have the symptoms of excess or unreasonable worry on 90 or more days out
of 180 days. Generally, people can’t quantify or track their feelings in that way, so again,
this is meant to offer a general guideline, right? Okay second—the person finds it hard
to control their anxiety, meaning that they have a hard time calming themselves or “self-soothing”
to help themselves regain control over their feelings. Third, an adult must have three
or more of the symptoms listed previously. In children though, typically defined as “school-age”,
so between 6 and 18 years old, only one symptom is needed for the diagnosis of GAD. Another
criteria is that the anxiety causes impairment in important daily activities like school
or work. For example, they might miss deadlines or find it difficult to even go to work because
of their symptoms. Fifth, the symptoms are not attributable to the physiologic effects
of a drugs or medication, or due to a medical condition like hyperthyroidism which creates
an excess of thyroid hormone, which can sometimes cause symptoms of anxiety and worry. Finally,
their anxiety isn’t better explained by another mental disorder like social phobia
or panic disorder. Just like a lot of mental disorders, it’s
unclear exactly why some individuals develop generalized anxiety disorder, but it’s thought
to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors, as it seems to run in families. It
also has been shown to be twice as prevalent in females than in males. Treating GAD, like many mental disorders,
may involve psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of the two. If it’s psychotherapy,
cognitive behavior therapy has been effective since it teaches the patient to think and
behave in different ways, and react differently to situations that would usually causes anxiety
and worry. Medications like benzodiazepines or antidepressants might be prescribed as
well, benzodiazepines are a type of psychoactive drug that have a relaxing and calming effect.
Antidepressants might also be prescribed, like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors,
or SSRIs, which regulate the serotonin levels in the brain and help elevate mood. Even though
both medications and cognitive behavior therapy have similar effectiveness in the short-term,
cognitive behavior therapy has major advantages over medication in the long term, due to unwanted
effects of the medications like tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal.