The Ottawa Ankle Rules | Ankle Fracture Clinical Prediction Rule


In this video, I’m going to demonstrate the Ottawa ankle rules to rule out fractures of the ankle and mid foot in an acute situation. Hi, and welcome back to Physiotutors de Ottawa ankle Rules have been developed in order to reduce the needs of radiographs after an acute Trauma. review by Buckman et Al. from the Year 2003 Rated the sensitivity between 96.4 to 99.6 percent and the specificity at 26.3 to 47.9 percent. So if the Ottawa Ankle rules are negative, chances of a fracture are low. Now let’s imagine the following situation You are a physiotherapist at a sporting event and you see an athlete Getting injured at the ankle. you can use the following sequence to rule out an ankle fracture. first palpate for tenderness on the posterior edge of the Lateral and Medial Malleolus start distally and move six centimeters upwards. Then palpate for pain or tenderness over the navicular bone and fifth metatarsal. For the last criterion ask the patient’s to walk four consecutive steps It doesn’t matter how the patient is walking, he might as well be limping. now if one out of three items is positive There’s a 25 to 50 percent chance that there is a fracture, the patient should then get x-Rays done. But if all three items are negative there is close to a 100 percent chance of no fracture at all. All right That’s the end of the video if you like you can check out the Ottawa knee rules or the anterior drawer test of the ankle on the left. Don’t forget to like and subscribe. This is us on social media or on our website This was Andreas from Physiotutors. I’ll see you next time. Bye

Unconscious Adult Choking

Unconscious Adult Choking


Alright, so now we’re on the adult, unconscious, choking victim. This is the person we were working with when they were conscious and choking. Our efforts did not get the obstruction clear. They were going unconscious, so we helped lower them to ground, ideally. And, as soon as they were lowered to the ground, that’s our cue to access the emergency medical services, call 911, or call a code. At this point, once we lower them down to the ground, after calling 911, we’re going to go straight to 30 chest compressions. We’re going to do those 30 chest compressions and then open the airway. Look in the mouth, check for an obstruction. If we see the obstruction, we’re actually going to reach in. Now, watch as we reach in, here. We’re actually going to go with a hooking motion with one finger, to the side of the mouth. Go towards the back, grab that object, and pull it out. Once the object is out, we’re going to go ahead and cover the mouth and nose with a mask and attempt one breath. We attempt one breath, it does not go in. We re-position the head. Attempt another breath. It still doesn’t go in, so we go right back to 30 chest compressions. After 30 chest compressions, we put our mask back on the face, attempt the breath. If it doesn’t go in, we re-position the head. Attempt another breath. If it still doesn’t go in, we go right back to chest compressions. If, at some point, when we try the rescue breath and it goes in, we’re going to deliver a second rescue breath and then check for a carotid pulse, no longer than 10 seconds. If we find that there is a good, palpable, or “feel-able”, pulse — easily “feel-able,” we know that this person is not in cardiac arrest. But, if they’re not breathing, we’re going to begin rescue breathing. If there’s no pulse, no breathing, we’re going to go right, straight into CPR. So, I just lowered him to the ground. He was conscious and choking, now he’s unconscious. Now I’m going to call 911. Hey, you in the plaid shirt, go call 911, I’ve got a person who is now unconscious from choking. Please return and let me know that you’ve called them. At this point, I’m going to start my 30 chest compressions. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 27, 28, 29, 30. I don’t see anything. I’m going to attempt a breath. Nothing went in, I’m going to re-position once and try another breath. Nothing went in. I’m going to continue with 30 more chest compressions. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 27, 28, 29, 30. Look in the mouth. Still don’t see anything. Try a breath. Didn’t go in. I’m going to re-position and try again. Nothing went in. I’m going to continue with 30 chest compressions. After 30 chest compressions, if I tried a breath and it went in, I’d give another breath, check for a pulse. If there was an easily palpable pulse, but no breathing, I would continue rescue breathing. If there was no pulse and no breathing, I would start CPR.

First Aid Tip for Severe Allergic Reaction or Anaphylactic Shock


Anaphylactic shock is a severe allergic reaction which when triggered can within minutes affect the body and be fatal. If your family has a history of varying kinds of allergies here are the things you need to know about anaphylactic shock. The most common symptoms include severe skin redness or rashes vomiting, breathing difficulty and diarrhea. It is caused by an allergy to food like peanuts and seafood, the weather, and allergens like dust and pollens. Here are first aid tips you can perform: Immediately call emergency medical services like 911-UNTV and say that you suspect that the child is having an anaphylaxis or a severe anaphylactic reaction. If you have company in the vicinity, ask the person to call or fetch emergency responders. Do not leave the patient. If the patient has anti-allergy medicine with him let him take it right away. Place the patient in a comfortable position and make sure that the place is properly ventilated. If the patient is pale, cold, and has bluish lips, be ready to treat a shock. Ask the patient to lie down and elevate his feet. If the patient is not breathing, perform a CPR. Remember, if a child is having an anaphylactic shock, do the following: First, call emergency medical services promptly. Second, let the patient take his anti-allergy medicine. Third, make sure that he is breathing properly. Fourth, prepare to treat a shock while waiting for emergency services. Fifth, if the child is not breathing, perform a CPR.

First Aid for Severe Bleeding


Bleeding controlled training
is of utmost important in the pediatric population. In those age one to 17, injury is the leading cause of mortality, and so understanding
how to control bleeding is of huge importance. A tourniquet is a device
that is used on an extremity and it provides a circumferential, a pressure around the extremity, that stops that blood flow and so blood can’t flow
through the extremity to the area that is bleeding. Tourniquets can only
be used on arms or legs and if there’s life
threatening bleeding there, putting the tourniquet
on and tightening it will put pressure on that extremity. For all other wounds
you use direct pressure, and that basically means taking your hand and available material. If you have gauze, great.
If you don’t, a t-shirt, a newspaper, a necktie, whatever you have you push that on the wound and then push as hard as you can on it. And so those are the two basic ways that you can apply pressure
for life threatening bleeding. Unfortunately accidents happen, and they happen around the home every day. Bleeding to death can occur within a couple of minutes
with a severe bleed. This can be before EMS providers arrive. Blood that is spurting from a wound, blood that is pooling on the ground, if the person is starting to
get faint or pale appearing, these are signs of life
threatening bleeding and this is when a
tourniquet should be applied. Everyone can learn how to use a tourniquet and they can be used to save a life.

First Aid for a car crash

First Aid for a car crash


– Hello, I’m Emma Hammett
from First Aid for Life and OnlineFirstAid.com,
today I’m going to talk about car accidents, road traffic collisions, people being hit by a car,
people being hit by a bike, various car accidents or
anything that happens on the road so whether it’s a motorbike
crash or a cyclist being knocked over or a pedestrian
being knocked over, or two car crashes where
there’s people sitting in the car and you are first on scene. I’m just going to briefly
cover sort of when to stop and how to help! Now there are loads more resources on this because it’s such an important topic. There’s loads more
articles and more detail on our website so on OnlineFirstAid.com and on First Aid for Life. So one of the first things, you know if you’re going
along the motorway and you see a car crash happening, what do you do? When do you stop? How do you stop? I mean the most important
thing is that you don’t make things worse in trying to stop, you don’t cause a further
accident and you don’t put yourself at risk so we’ve
written a whole article about when to stop, how to stop, where it’s safe to stop,
the angle at which to park your car or to pull over
can make a difference and which lane it’s in. So, really important to make
sure that you are stopping if it is safe to do so. Now
sometimes it might not be feasible for you to stop, but
please alert the emergency services so that they can get experts there as quickly as possible. So not every time that you
see a road traffic accident is it going to be appropriate for you personally to be the one to stop. If you can and it’s safe
to do so then what you do in those first vital,
few seconds, few minutes, can make all the
difference and very often, people have died following a car accident because their heads flopped
over so they’re unconscious and in being unconscious
their heads flopped forward, and occluded their airway and
sometimes just knowing that and repositioning and
supporting appropriately, and making sure that airway is clear, can save their lives and you know, an occluded
airway can kill someone in a few minutes so if you
are able to stop, please do so and if it’s safe for you to do so. Be very very aware of traffic around you and also, of other people
who may have been involved in the accident who might be
dazed and not quite with it and definitely need
additional help as well. It is very very frightening
stopping at a car accident and if you’ve ever been there
and seen the emergency service draw up they usually whizz
up in their blue lights and then they seem to
take a little bit of time before they rush over, now
usually what they’re doing is what we should all do
as well, is breathing, and assessing the scene and
just making sure they’re prioritising and have
the right stuff they need and they’re going to be
making clear headed, sensible decisions so please,
if you are first there, don’t go rushing in a
panic, take a few seconds to clear your head, it’s
a sensible approach. Now we go into various
bits in the article about when you move someone, when
you don’t move someone. I mean the key is if you
think that they might have damaged their spine and if
anyone’s been thrown from a car, or hit at speed by a car or
a bike or someones come off their motorbike or motorcycle
or a pedestrians been hit, the chances of them having
a head or spinal injury are relatively high in which case, what you’re trying not to do
is you’re trying not to twist them but if they are
lying flat on their back and they’re unconscious,
and they are breathing when you get to them, then
ideally you would get some people to help you to roll them
into the recovery position keeping their spine in line. Because lying on their back, if
they’re completely unconscious, will mean that they won’t be
able to maintain that airway. So, really important that
their airway is your priority. If they are conscious
and they are lying there, if it is safe around them and
you can make it safe around them then keep them where they are and get the emergency services on the way! Now if you’re first on
scene at an accident your priority is anybody that is quiet. Anybody that is screaming,
they have an open airway, they need to, obviously
somebody needs to be with them if they are completely
distraught and hysterical for their own safety as
well, but your priority is anyone that is quiet
and working at very quickly if they’re unconscious and breathing or unconscious and not breathing. So, there is an awful lot to go into, please make sure you have a
well-stocked first aid kit in your car or if you’re a
motor cyclist or a cyclist, with you, on your bike, on your motorbike, because you are vulnerable as road users, and having an immediate
kit that you can grab and use to stop bleeding,
is really important and really useful, so as I said before, priority is are they
conscious or unconscious, are they breathing? Is their airway in danger
in which case sort it out. And if you can avoid it, avoid twisting, it’s that twisting movement
that is particularly important if somebody’s got a spinal
injury or you suspect they might have a spinal injury. Don’t do anything too radical. Get help, get emergency
services on the way and hopefully our couple of
articles that we’ve written will make it easier for
you to know what to do and know when to stop and
also things like being able to direct the emergency services
to exactly where you are. So understanding the
signage on the motorway which can give them a direct
point to tell them whether you’re travelling north,
south, east, west, and exactly which of the marker points you’re nearest and closest to. So that you can get them to
you as quickly as possible. Also, when you’re making that call, ensuring that you’re
giving them the information they need to manage
resources appropriately. So they will need to know
how many cars are involved or how many bikes or whatever is involved. How many casualties are involved. Whether or not it’s likely
that they need fire engines, so is somebody trapped? Because if somebody is
trapped they will need to do the sardine can on the car. You know, is there a danger of fire? All sorts of things, give
them as much information as possible, in a nice,
clear way so that they can manage appropriate resources
so that the people that are injured get the help
and the support they need as quickly as possible. I hope that’s helpful,
that’s Emma Hammett from First Aid for Life and OnlineFirstAid.com

First Aid & Safety Tips : How to Measure & Record Respiratory Rate

First Aid & Safety Tips : How to Measure & Record Respiratory Rate


You know assessing a patient or victim’s condition
can be one of the key factors and components to help responding medical personal determine
what’s going on with the victim of an accident or illness. Hi I’m Captain Joe Bruni. What
we are going to talk about is how to measure respiratory rate or breathing. We would basically
take a look at the chest or the stomach and watch it rise and fall. Each time it rises
and fall would be one inspiration and expiration of breathing. We would count each time their
chest rise and fall for approximately fifteen seconds and multiply by four or count for
thirty seconds and multiply by two. We would then take note of this as we are counting,
watching what type of breathing rate is occurring. Is it labored, or is it effortless. Is it
deep or is it shallow. And record such findings so when responding medical personal can receive
this key critical information from you as a first responder, someone that’s a good Samaritan
or just someone rendering aid to a victim of an accident or illness, would be good information
to give to responding medical personal. I’m Captain Joe Bruni, we’ll see you next time
and stay safe.

Dog CPR: Unconscious & Not Breathing

Dog CPR: Unconscious & Not Breathing


– If you suspect that
a dog is unconscious, you need to approach from behind. You start by touching them
with the back of your foot and speak to them as well. So you’re not kicking them, you’re just touching them gently with the back of your foot. You would then touch them
with the back of your hand, it’s less invasive than
the front of your hand as far as they’re concerned. If there is no response at all, you need to open their airway. So you tilt the head and
lift their chin back, you pull their tongue forward a bit, and you check to see if they’re breathing. So you would feel the breath, you could use a bit of your hair and see if it’s moving
underneath their nose. And you can feel if they’re breathing. If they’re not breathing,
you need to start CPR. If they are breathing, you would put them into
the recovery position on their right-hand side. So if they’re not breathing, you need to then hold
their mouth together, and you’re going to breathe
in through their nose. And use a face shield. So if you’ve got a face shield, or something to protect
yourself, that’s a good idea. And always gain consent from the owner before giving CPR to somebody else’s dog. So you hold their jaw together, and you’re going to breathe into them, not breathing a full breath, because our lungs are
bigger than theirs are. So you’re going to breathe into
them and see the chest rise. You’re going to breathe in at a rate of one every three seconds, and you’re going to give
five initial breaths. So holding in. And see if that’s helped them
to start breathing themselves. If it hasn’t, I’m now going to check to
see if there is a pulse. So, I’m going to use
my three middle fingers and I’m going to feel
just inside their back leg and see if there is any form of a pulse or I could put my hand and see if their heart
appears to be beating. If there is a pulse, but they’re not breathing, I’m now going to give another 20 breaths. So that’s about one
minute’s worth of breaths to see if that will prompt them to start breathing themselves. So again, I would hold their jaw together. I would breathe into them
to inflate their lungs. So I’ll be doing that up to 20 times. If after that, they still haven’t started
breathing themselves, then I will need to start
doing chest compressions. When I’m breathing into them, I’m being the lungs for them. When I’m pushing on their chest I’m being the heart. So I’m being a heart and lung machine to keep their heart and their brain full of oxygenated blood so that once they get to the vet there’s a much better chance
of them making a full recovery. So, I’ve checked danger,
I’ve approached them. I’ve checked for response. There’s no response. I’ve opened the airway,
I’ve checked for breathing. They’re not breathing. I’ve given them breaths and now I’m going to give
them the compressions. So behind them like this. For most dogs you will be
pushing just on the side here. So just behind their front legs and that’s where the
heart would be positioned. For something like a whippet, it’s slightly more in
the triangle between them and if you have one of
the flat-chested dogs like a bulldog or a pug, then you might want to
roll them on their back and you can be doing CPR on them while they’re on their back. So put your hand over like this, the over hand over the top and I’m pushing down hard and fast. 30 compressions and then
after the 30 compressions I would go back to
giving two breaths again. So 30 to two, 30 to two. Now the Blue Cross say that
if you haven’t had any luck and they haven’t come back to life within about three or five minutes, it’s highly unlikely that they
are going to make a recovery. Give it your best shot. You are doing the very best
possible that you can for them and get them to a vet
as quickly as possible.