First Aid on the Streets, Ep. 1: CPR


“Ah, ah, ah, ah, staying alive, staying alive Ah, ah, ah, ah, staying alive, staying alive” I might be a professional comedian but there’s nothing funny about providing first aid care That’s why I became a certified first aid instructor with the Canadian Red Cross and I’m headed to the streets to find out what you know about providing first aid care. Hey, hi, excuse me, this is not an emergency situation, I just want to talk to you about first aid, okay? Yeah, for sure. So how do you determine where to give a proper compression? Where do you think it is? Probably more centre of the chest. If you put your hand up like this and put it in your arm pit, right up to the top, then come straight across to the middle, right? You’ve got to be able to find with your palm where to go. Okay. “Staying Alive, Staying Alive, ah, ah, ah, ah, Staying Alive, Staying Alive” “Ah, ah, ah, ah, Staying Alive”… Place your hand and put it right underneath the armpit. So as soon as you slide right the chest to the centre, that’s exactly where you’ll start. Hi I’m Chris the mannequin And I want you to go to redcross.ca to sign up for a First Aid course so you can get the knowledge, skills, and the preparation to help people in an emergency situation. Just to be sure, by watching this video doesn’t mean you’re qualified to provide the first aid skills we’ve been talking about and any time you want to provide care, always ask first.

First Aid for Knocked Out Teeth

First Aid for Knocked Out Teeth


– Hello, I’m Emma Hammett
the founder and CEO of First Aid for Life,
firstaidforlife.org.uk. Today I’m going to cover what to do if you find someone has had a mouth injury. If they were cycling along and someone opened the car
door is a real classic one and they go straight into the door, it can knock out their teeth. If it’s a child playing at the swings and the swing flies up
and hits them in the face or they run into the side of a table, a small table or something,
they tripped over one of my son’s friends,
someone was playing a joke and they slapped him on the back and he went straight into his desk and knocked his front teeth out. If the tooth has come out in
its entirety, it can be saved. The priority however is
if you’ve got someone who has had a head injury. So if they’ve been hit hard in the face, do think that they may
well have some degree of whiplash and that they
could have a head injury. Those would be more serious injuries than the superficial injury
that is quite alarming because there will be a lot of blood because mouths bleed a lot
because they’re very vascular. Don’t be distracted
immediately by the blood loss. It’s more important to
just work out whether you think that they have had
a very serious head injury and could have any degree of spinal damage or head injury side of
things because of that. If it is just a mouth injury, then you’re priority will
be to stop the bleeding. Get them ideally to bite on something. A bit of clean non-fluffy cloth, whatever you happen to have. Clean non-fluffy, if you’re
a Mum you’ll probably have a muslin nappy,
well if you’re a new Mum, with you, that would be
great if it was a clean one. Get them to bite on that. If there are loose teeth, if they’re able to remove it themselves
then that would be good. If it is completely
loose and has fallen out. Any tooth that is there
with the root on it as I said before can be saved. Any bits of teeth that have been snapped, then I’m afraid you won’t be
able to do anything with those. If might still be worth
popping them in your pocket and taking them with you when you take the casualty to a good
dentist or a dental hospital. Your priority is to stop the bleeding. Get them to bite on a cloth. If you have a wrapped ice pack
that will reduce any swelling and then the key thing
then is to get them help. For the tooth itself, if
it has been knocked out in its entirety, if it
is popped into some milk, or some saliva, so you can
get them to spit into a pot, or you could spit into a pot, or if you are a loving
parent and you’re somewhere where there isn’t any milk or
a pot that you can spit into, you could put a child’s tooth
in the side of your mouth so long as you’re sure you’re
not going to swallow it. That saliva can keep that tooth alive until you get the casualty and the tooth to a good quality interventive dentist or a dental hospital where they can see whether
or not they can reimplant it. It’s unlikely they will
reimplant milk teeth. Very occasionally they
do, but it’s unlikely. But if it is a permanent tooth and it hasn’t got damaged and they feel that it is likely to take, then you’ve given them
the very best chance to be able to reimplant it. Don’t wash the tooth, don’t touch the root if you can avoid it. Just handle it very carefully
and get as quickly as you can for them to be treated. Don’t forget they have had a head injury so keep a lookout for
signs of anything unusual for the next 24 to 48 hours because you’re looking for after affects from the head injury. I hope that’s been helpful. That’s Emma Hammett
firstaidforlife.org.uk. There’s many more free
resources on our website.

First Aid for Schools: What do you Need?

First Aid for Schools: What do you Need?


Hello, I’m Emma Hammett
from First Aid for Life. Today, I’m going to talk to you about the first aid requirements in schools. Now in schools, it’s really important that you make appropriate first aid cover, provide appropriate first aid provision to comply with the Health
and Safety Executive for you as a business, as a school and to comply with the Ofsted, or if you’re a private school with the equivalent to
Ofsted requirements, in order to ensure that your staff and the children are safe and you have the necessary provision if
an accident should happen. It’s a legal requirement
for all businesses to make appropriate first aid provision and that is governed by the
Health and Safety Executive. So there is HSE provision
that needs to be covered and the Ofsted, so it’s
two different areas. And your duty of care, in terms of the Health and Safety Executive governs you as an employer and the safety and well-being of your employees. Now even if it was an individual running a business as
it was when I started up my first aid training business, you still need to make appropriate
provision for first aid. Now obviously in a school,
there’s going to be many more people than one person. But you need to make sure that you are caring for the welfare, you have appropriate audits to ensure that you have worked what
cover you actually need concerning the risks and that you have to go through exactly how
many buildings you have. So, if there’s a discreet location then that should have its own first aid cover and provision, as well. So, really important
that you’re taking note and making sure that you are looking at all the risks and the
sort of things that you do. So obviously, if you’re a Forest School, you’ll have even more
complex risk assessment that needs to be done in order to clarify exactly what first aid cover you need. You also, as well as your first aid cover, you need to ensure that you have appropriate numbers of first aid kits. Again, making sure that you have cover for discreet locations and it is also strongly recommended, not a legal requirement as yet, but strongly recommended that
you have a defibrillator. They do make a huge difference if you do have someone
who has cardiac arrest on site for whatever reason. If you’re able to get a defibrillator on their chest within three minutes and they’re in a shockable rhythm, the odds of them surviving
jumps from 6% to 74%. So, it’s a no brainer really. You need to make sure you’re looking at all those sides of things. If you’re a primary school
with an early years setting, some of your staff will need to do a 12 hour paediatric course and some of your staff will need to make sure that they complying with the Health and Safety
Executive requirements to ensure that you have the right number of First Aiders to look after your staff. So, we need to make sure. I can see some people coming on and saying, “Hello,” on
this, so thank you very much. Hello to you, too. So, I hope this is being useful. In terms of the duties of a First Aider, they need to, obviously, administer the first aid and make
sure that they can decide whether you need an ambulance or not. You need to make sure that people are appropriately trained
to be able to help in a variety of situations. Ideally, they’re going
to be covering instances such as playground incidents. So, you need to make sure that they know when it is appropriate. Obviously it’s a school, you don’t want ambulances called willy-nilly. A, it’s not great for your
school and its reputation. And B, it’s a complete waste of resources if they are unnecessary. So, you need someone appropriately trained to make the right decisions as to when an ambulance is necessary and when the First Aider themselves can be dealing with situation. Please don’t be tempted to pop a child into the car and drive
them to the hospital. If it’s a less serious problem, then the parent can come in
and take them to their GP or to a walk-in centre to be looked at. If it is a serious problem, you
obviously need an ambulance. But in terms of insurance
cover and things, it is not a good idea to
drive them in yourself. You need to make sure that you’ve got appropriate First Aiders,
so those are people that have done a regulated course, that are able to provide first aid. And ideally, you would
also have a larger number of people trained in basic first aid so that they can assist and support the First Aider and,
again, that they can know whether it is something really serious and whether it’s
something that needs to go to the First Aider, if
they’re on playground duty. Or whether it’s something that’s, just a sort of, bit of
cajoling and they will be okay. Now make sure, as well,
that everybody knows about asthma inhalers
and how to help them, where the child should
have their asthma inhaler, if they’re allowed to have them on them. Ideally that would be great
so that if they are having an asthma attack, they
have immediate access. The same with adrenaline auto-injectors. People should all be able to recognise the signs and symptoms,
so please make sure your dinner staff are
trained up to that, as well. Make sure that they know how to help if someone’s choking too. The thing about first aid
is you want to make sure that you’re treating things immediately and that way it isn’t a drama. If somebody is choking in the dinner hall and they’re able to identify that it is serious choking,
the child can’t cough and they’re able to put
their hand on their back and give them five hard back blows and dislodge the obstruction before there’s any
drama that has occurred, then isn’t that better than having to rush and wait for the First Aider? And then, “Oh my goodness.” The problem is dealt with and it’s sorted. The idea is you have enough people who are first aid trained
throughout your school so that they are able to identify quickly if something’s serious or not
and treat it appropriately. Make sure that children that have individual health care plans so they’re asthmatic,
maybe they’re epileptic. Epileptic, asthmatic
or they have a history of anaphylaxis, make sure
that that is flagged up to all the relevant
staff so that they know what they should do and how to get the medication to the child quickly and how to help them to treat it. Make sure that if there’s school trips that there is an appropriate First Aider on the trip and, also, make sure it isn’t your only First Aider that is going off on the trip so that the school is kept short, is short of First Aiders. You need to make sure that
you have enough people so that you have at least
one person per 50 people, at the very least, that
is available at all times and that is including cover for holidays and sickness and being off-site
and in different sites. If your First Aider is
down on the sports pitch, you need to make sure that you have another First Aider up in the main school. There should be a designated medical room that children can go to and accidents do need to be recorded appropriately, on the right forms. And, you can get some great forms that allow you to keep a
copy without rewriting it. I’ve been to schools before where they’ve been photocopying the forms. There’s no need, you
can get the right forms that are all sorted and
there are various systems, as well, that can help you with this. I hope that’s helpful. That’s just a brief overview. We’ve got lots more information on our blogs, on First Aid for Life and in the article I’ve written for the British Journal of School Nursing on exactly what the first aid
requirements are in schools. And don’t forget, as well, that first aid is now part of the curriculum. So make sure that you have
made the right provision for your children to be properly trained. Please don’t just do lip service to this. Make sure that you’ve
gone through a system, either to get them an online course or a practical course in order to ensure that these skills are taught properly. I hope that’s been helpful. That’s Emma Hammett
from First Aid for Life.

Stepped on a Sea Urchin | Holiday First Aid

Stepped on a Sea Urchin | Holiday First Aid


– Hello, I’m Emma Hammett,
the founder and CEO of First Aid for Life
and onlinefirstaid.com. I’m on holiday at the moment. I’m in sunny Ljubljana, which
is absolutely beautiful. While we’ve been away
on the coastal areas, there have been a lot
of sea urchins around. And, something I’m asked
often is how should you deal with it if you happen
to tread on a sea urchin. First of all, sea urchins are sweet. You can hold them in your hand. They don’t look to hurt you. But, if you happen to tread on them, they are covered in sharp, sharp barbs, similar to a porcupine, except these barbs have got little arrows that
go the other way as well. So, if you happen to tread on one, not only do the barbs go into you, but they are much harder
to pull out again. So, if you get a barb or
anything within your skin, it’s prone to get infected. So, the important thing to do is if you tread on a sea
urchin, and you end up with some of those barbs embedded, or those spines embedded in your foot, or you put your hand on them
and they’re in your hand, what you need to do is
to get some tweezers and do your best to pull out the spines as quickly as you can, and to ensure you get all of the spine out. Because, the problem happens
if any of the residual bits are left inside your skin,
and then they become infected. Please don’t be tempted to probe around with a needle to try and dig bits out, because that will just
make things sore and messy. If you’ve got bits that are embedded, then the advice is to put them in as hot water as you can stand
without burning yourself, and then squeeze to see
if you can get them out. Other people suggest
doing things like vinegar, which apparently dissolves the spines. However, I’m a bit sceptical about that because the concentration
of vinegar you’d need to dissolve the spines
would be pretty hefty, and it would be a slow process. So, the general advice is hot water, as hot as you can manage,
and squeeze the spines out, being careful that you are
getting it all out as well. Other advice you might find online is for people to get as many of the spines as they can out with tweezers, and then to shave the area. I would, again, strongly
dissuade you from doing that because then you’re just removing any bits that you could potentially
grab with tweezers as they work themselves out. Most of the time the sea urchin spikes will work their way out,
and they won’t cause you any long term damage. But, if you do see any signs of infection, so, redness, swellingness,
you start to feel unwell or anything, you do need
to get medical help, and you may need antibiotics. I hope that’s been helpful. The key thing of all
is to prevent treading on the sea urchins’ spikes
in the first place anyway. And, wear thick-soled swimming shoes, and avoid any of those lovely, dark, fluffy looking bits
that are most definitely not fluffy under the sea. So, just be wary of
treading on sea urchins in the first place. Thank you very much, and I
hope you have a lovely holiday. That’s Emma Hammett
from First Aid for Life and onlinefirstaid.com.

Eye Injuries

Eye Injuries


Now let’s cover the topic of eye injuries,
of which there can be a couple of main types. One is an object embedded in the eye. The
other is a chemical in the eye. In this case, we’re going to be first addressing the object
in the eye. In this case we know that the worker was by a grinding wheel, and potentially
one of the brushes may have flown off the wheel and embedded in their eye. They’re in
a great deal of pain. We’ve gone ahead and assessed for scene safety, our gloves are
on, and also the patient is not suffering from airway, breathing, or circulation problems
at this time, so they’re remaining fairly stable. We guided them to a place where they
could be sat down carefully and now treated, and here’s what we’re going to do. We find
a cup. It’s important to understand that we want to actually get something that goes over
the wounded eye so that we don’t put any pressure on the object that’s embedded in the eye.
The second thing too is, if you have a medical grade cup, that’s fine, but you could also
use a Dixie cup or a drinking cup, a styrofoam cup, a coffee cup. It really doesn’t matter.
It doesn’t have to be overly large, because that’s going to cause some problems in trying
to bandage around it, so the smaller, the better. But we do want it to be at least deep
enough that it keeps the pressure off from that eye. The second point to make is that
we want to bandage both eyes shut because eyes tend to move together. So if we leave
one eye unbandaged so the person can see, when they move that eye they will also be
moving the affected eye, and we don’t want to cause further harm. The third point, and
lastly, we can have the patient assist us, when we’re having them hold the cup or hold
things in place while we bandage. So here we are. I’m just going to go ahead and put
this cup over your affected eye, ma’am. Go ahead and take your hand away. Now can you
hold that cup in place? Now the second thing I’m going to do– and be sure to talk to your
patient. They’re kind of blind at this point, so you want to be really communicating with
them, instead of making them guess what they’re feeling, like, “Now I’m putting a cup on your
eye, and now I’m going to throw a bandage on your eye.” Explain what you’re going to
do before you do it, so we don’t shock them. And then the other thing to remember too is,
once this is all bandaged, they’re blind. We’re going to have to lead them as if they
are blind, making sure to remind them where to step, how to step, so they don’t fall down.
And ideally we’re going to transport this patient via EMS, because there’s things that
we can do en route that might not be able to be done in a private car. But if the EMS
is not an option, private car may work as long as the patient is stable and doesn’t
have any other injuries that would stop them from being transported. So I took another
4×4 gauze. If you had an actual eye bandage, you could use that, certainly, but a 4×4 gauze
is not a problem either. Ma’am, I’m going to put this over your non-affected eye, and
you can hold that in place, and I’m just going to wrap a gauze around both of them. Go ahead
and let go of the cup side. I’m going to put a bandage around. Let me know if that hurts
at all, okay? Not the eye that’s hurt, but I mean, as I’m wrapping, any new pain. Now
I’m going to go ahead and wrap around this. You can let go. And I’m just going to continue
here. I know that’s over your nose, but I’ll move that in just a second, okay? I’m going
to continue to bandage around, and probably just a good couple times. You just want to
make sure that the cup is not going to slip. And then once you come back around to the
other side, we tuck the excess in underneath the bandage, as long as it’s not putting too
much pressure. Or you could always tape it in place. Is that fairly comfortable, ma’am?
I’m going to go ahead and lift this over your nose so you can breathe okay. Now the patient
is packaged and ready to go. Now we’re going to be doing our secondary survey, which is
doing a double-check. This is a pretty distracting injury, so it could take our eyes, our eyes
as rescuers, off from other things that might be happening. Maybe she fell after she got
the injury in the eye and hit her head. So we’re always going to be assessing for level
of consciousness, airway, breathing, circulation, signs of shock, and treating accordingly,
as we get this person into definitive care and back on track. And now let’s take a look
at the other type of eye injury, which is chemical burns. Whether a dry chemical or
a liquid chemical, it can cause a great amount of damage to this eye and the mucous membrane
of the eye in a relatively short amount of time. So getting the person to a position
where we can actually start to dilute the chemical as soon as possible is essential.
Now we would like to use a balanced solution as far as pH goes, but if you only have the
tap water out of a sink, or you have bottled water, drinking water, anything is going to
be better than nothing. If it’s a dry chemical, we’re going to brush as much of the excess
off as we can before we begin to dilute it and flush the eye. If it’s a liquid, we’re
just going to begin flushing. A key point here: If it’s one affected eye, we want to
go from the inside of the eye and rinse to the outside. We don’t want to cross-contaminate
eyeballs. We don’t want to flush from outside in, as it can then run over the bridge of
the nose into the non-affected eye. Now we’ve got chemical exposure to both eyes. Remember
that we’re going to flush for no less than 20 minutes to dilute and to bring the solution
into a position where it’s not causing damage. We’re going to transport this person to an
emergency room as soon as possible, and we’re going to watch for other life-threatening
issues. Remember, the chemical that went in the eye could have also gotten into the mouth,
nose, or airway, so we don’t want to take for granted that this is an isolated injury.
So we’re going to continue to assess our patient from head to toe, looking for life-threatening
situations like airway, breathing, circulation, or shock symptoms, and treat accordingly,
and then continue to flush those eyeballs out so that we can get the chemical out and
stop the burning from happening.

First Aid in Remote Locations – an unscripted overview!

First Aid in Remote Locations – an unscripted overview!


Hi I’m Alastair I am one of the trainers
that works on the First Aid in Remote Locations training course run by Lazarus
training as the name kind of suggests the course is designed for people
working in remote locations mainly media staff so thinking of production teams or
production companies that are traveling around filming in a variety of locations
the course covers a wide variety of topics ranging from things like the
obvious casualty assessments for major injuries like a big bleed we then
move into things like managing the airway and breathing we work our way
through to other injuries so talk about things like broken bones and burns but
we also have to then consider the different environments that people might
be working in so we look at the conditions that may be created by being
in hot environments then in cold environments and we also look at dealing
with people who may be ill due to working at altitude now the other thing
about the first-aid in remote locations course that we are quite proud about is
that whilst it’s only a three day course we’ve crammed a lot of material in and
we also bear in mind that sometimes when you’re working in remote locations you
might not be able to get to medical care very very quickly so we bring in context
of looking after somebody potentially looking after somebody overnight and
there’s no set definition of what a remote location is but one of the things
that we consider is that it means that you’re remote from medical help and
potentially you might even have to go and seek medical help i.e. take your
colleague with you to a hospital and so we look at that side of things about how
we might move somebody how we might stabilize fractures before moving
somebody and even how we might turn our vehicle into an ambulance now other
things that we’ll cover within this training is that we look at the
consequences of travel – travel health someone much wiser than me said once
that travel broadens the mind and loosens the bowels so we look at things
ranging from traveller’s diarrhoea through all the horrible bugs and
beasties that might get on your body or trying bite bits out of you or try to
live in you horrifically but we also look at things like vector-borne diseases
let’s say malaria and up to 35 other diseases transmitted by the same vector
so all in all a really tight package as I said already only lasts for three days
it’s aimed at people that are going to be working remote locations
but don’t want to become full-time medics so we keep it nice and simple
there’s loads of practical elements to it you’re looking at on average four or
five casualty simulations per day and that’s with a real-life person as a
casualty not a mannequin and we found that the course has been really well
received we’ve been running it now for about four years in the media sector so
we’re on kind of like version 2.4 or whatever it might be
and we’re constantly learning ourselves we’re picking up information from the
people doing the courses and finding out what they would like to see covered in
it and in fact we’re just in the process of doing another rewrite so if any of
you have attended the courses those of you that work in that kind of area if you’ve
got suggestions then feel free to drop them through to us and in fact we’d just
be keen to hear everyone’s feedback now if you’re watching this on YouTube I
think you can probably comment down below if you’re watching it on our
Facebook page probably the same and if you’re watching
this embedded into the respective page on our website then there’s a comment
area at the bottom of the page so feel free to get in touch
we’d love to hear from you and if you want to know any more about the
first-aid in remote locations course do feel free to get in touch

How to Treat an Injured Bleeding Baby – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance

How to Treat an Injured Bleeding Baby – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance


As your baby crawls around your home or outside, they can very easily graze or cut themselves. Most of the time the injury will not be too bad, but sometimes there can be serious bleeding. If there is blood flowing from a wound and it doesn’t stop, your baby has severe bleeding. To treat a severe bleed, remove any clothing from the area your baby is bleeding from. If there’s something in the wound, leave it where it is and apply pressure around the wound to try to push the edges together. If there’s nothing in the wound, apply pressure directly to it with a sterile dressing or a clean, non-fluffy pad. Next you need to ask a helper to call 999 or 112 for emergency help. Or if there is no one around to help, use a mobile on speakerphone so you can keep treating your baby while you speak to the emergency services. Tell them where the bleeding is and the amount of bleeding. Apply a firm bandage around the dressing on top of the wound. It needs to maintain pressure, but not restrict the circulation. Check the circulation by pressing a fingernail on the skin around the bandage for five seconds, release the pressure and if the colour does not return within two seconds the bandage is too tight and you should loosen it. Severe bleeding can lead to shock, so make sure they are lying down on a blanket or rug to protect them from the cold and raise their legs, but don’t raise an injured leg. You could hold a small baby in the recovery position. If the blood soaks through the dressing, apply a second dressing on top of the first. If it soaks through both, remove both dressings and apply a new one. Keep checking circulation every 10 minutes. While you’re waiting for help to arrive, keep checking your baby’s breathing and level of response. So remember, if your baby has a severe bleed, apply pressure around the wound if there’s something stuck in it, or apply direct pressure to the wound if it’s clear. Call 999 or 112 for emergency help and tell them where the bleeding is and the amount. Secure the dressing and check circulation, if blood comes through apply a second dressing. But if blood comes through both, take them both off and start again. Check circulation every 10 minutes, keep checking your baby’s breathing and level of response while you wait for help. And that’s how you treat a baby who’s got a severe bleed. Thanks for watching. Help support St John Ambulance and donate today.

First Aid – Open The Airway: Child

First Aid – Open The Airway: Child


Opening the airway for a child. When you’re unconscious,
your muscles relax. Your tongue is a huge, great muscle attached to your bottom jaw. People talk about swallowing your tongue. You can’t swallow your tongue. But what they mean is
that the tongue relaxes and it ends up flopping down
and blocking your airway. The way to open someone’s airway is to tilt the head and lift the chin. It takes the back of the tongue off the back of the airway. Now, for an adult, you’d
go all the way back. For a child, you put one hand on the head, two fingers on the chin and you don’t have to go quite as far back. And that will be all that needs to happen to open the airway. So it may be that they
weren’t breathing before and when you open the
airway, they start breathing, which is great to know. The other problem that you have is that the sphincter that keeps the contents of your
stomach in your stomach relaxes and opens when you’re unconscious. So if you are lying on your back, the contents of your
stomach will trickle up and drip into your lungs. This is why the recovery
position is so important. Because if you’re in
the recovery position, the contents of your stomach
will then trickle out and they won’t end up
causing any problems.