Choking Cat – What to Do | First Aid for Pets

Choking Cat – What to Do | First Aid for Pets


How to help your choking cat. Unfortunately, cats can choke, they can choke on fur balls
or things that they find around the house, and it
can be really frightening. If you suspect that your cat is choking, what you need to do is, very
carefully, restrain them. A choking cat will panic,
and you need to restrain them and make sure you’re looking
after your own safety, you should open their mouth, and very carefully have a look and see if there’s anything
obvious that you can remove. If there isn’t anything obvious, and your cat is really
struggling to breathe, get someone to phone the
vet, and get them to the vet as quickly as you can. First aid, on the way to the vet, if you suspect that your cat
is going to stop breathing, because of this obstruction,
you can help them by doing Heimlich manoeuvre
or an abdominal thrust, similar to what you would do on a human. If you reach under their
ribcage, and you make a fist, you put the fist in that little gap underneath their ribcage, you hold them, and you pull in and up,
in a J-shaped motion. So pull in and up, and hopefully, whatever
is stuck will come out. So, in and up, and then you can check, and see if it’s made any difference. If you can see anything
obvious that you can reach, if you’ve got some big
tweezers or forceps, you can just remove it carefully. There are little bones that
you can see at the back of a cat’s throat, don’t try poking there, because that is part of them. So, only if anything obvious, don’t finger sweep, or poke around, and get to the vet as quickly as possible. If you have done an
abdominal thrust to them, and you can do two or three of them, if you’ve done an abdominal
thrust, and it has worked, then still take them to the vet, because they will need to be checked over, because abdominal thrusts can do damage. So, get them to the vet,
get them checked over, and that’s how to help a choking cat.

Choking Dog: What to Do | First Aid for Pets


– My name is Emma Hammett. I’m the founder and CEO
of firstaidforpets.net, and we do first aid training
to teach you how to help your pet in an emergency
before you can get to the vet, in those first vital seconds or minutes. Today, I’m going to talk about choking. If your dog is choking, it’s really important that
you’re able to help them quickly, and dogs can choke on
pretty much anything. They can wolf down their food. They can scavenge and
find all sorts of things that aren’t suitable for
them to eat like socks, and they can choke on the
ball, and they can choke on, as I said, pretty much anything. Rawhide is particularly nasty for them, so please avoid giving your dog rawhide, and also bones, cooked bones
can end up being very brittle and they can do damage if they get stuck. Okay, so if you suspect
your dog is choking, they may be pouring, they may be drooling. They will look distressed, pacing. Have a look very carefully. Your safety is the most important. So have a look in their
mouth, but make very sure that you are not in
danger of getting bitten. What you will need to
do, and if you’ve got someone else to help, that’s even better, is have a look in their
mouth and see if there is anything obvious that you can just remove. Obviously, protect your fingers, and don’t risk getting bitten. If there’s anything that you
can remove quickly and easy with your finger and thumb or with a pair of forceps or tweezers,
then get it out quickly. Don’t finger sweep or
poke your fingers down, because you’ll make things worse. So if there’s nothing obvious down there, then your next thing to do
is to try repositioning them to see if gravity can help
you get the obstruction out. If you have a smaller dog, then holding them upside down and shaking them slightly can end up getting the obstruction out, so that is a good thing to start doing. If you’ve got a large dog, then you would need to do
a wheelbarrow position. I don’t know if you can see. So you would hold them in a
sort of wheelbarrow position in order to try and get
the obstruction out. It’s harder with a big
dog, and they’re heavy, but you’re doing what you
can to save their lives. If holding them like that hasn’t worked, your second line of treatment is the Heimlich manoeuvre for dogs. So, the Heimlich manoeuvre
is the same as with humans where what you are doing with
a human is going under your ribcage, between your tummy
button and your rib cage and making a fist like that, with the thumb towards you. You’re putting that into that dip, and dogs have the same dip. You’re talking about
this sort of dip here, so this dip, just at this point, and you’re going to put
your fist in at that point, and you’re going to be
doing an upward thrust. So you’d be holding them downwards. You’d be putting your fist like that, and you would be doing an upward thrust to try and get the obstruction out. If I demonstrate with this larger dog here that has got a choking vest on, what I will hopefully
be able to demonstrate is that in doing the Heimlich manoeuvre, I will force the obstruction out, and hopefully, if this works, you should be able to see the
obstruction coming through. So what you would do is put
one hand around like that. The other hand goes on top,
and it’s a hard and fast upward movement, a J-shaped movement. In and up, like that. Up, like that. And the obstruction was out. So you would hold them upside down first, so actually, first of all,
you’re checking in the mouth. Then you’re holding them
upside down to reposition and see if you can get
the obstruction out, and failing that, you are then going to do five abdominal thrust or
Heimlich manoeuvres for them, and then back like that. Don’t waste any more time. If it’s not coming out, get
them to the vet quickly. So pop them in and get
them as fast as you can to your local vet, your closest vet, which may not be your usual vet. It’s whatever is closest. This is a medical emergency for your pet. Okay, if the pet loses consciousness, you might need to do CPR on them. We’ll cover CPR in a
separate Facebook Live video, but what you would be doing
is breathing into their nose. You would be giving them two breaths, 30 compressions, two breaths again. 120 beats per minute when
you’re pushing on their chest, but again, get to the vet
as quickly as you can. Do not delay anything in
getting them to the vet fast. So, hopefully that is helpful. If you have managed to
dislodge the obstruction but they are showing signs
of difficulty swallowing or anything, they should
always be checked out by a vet, particularly if you’ve done
a Heimlich manoeuvre on them, because you can end up
damaging their ribs a bit. So get them checked
out, and it may be that whatever was stuck in
the back of their throat, that it’s actually scratched
or damaged the back of their throat and that you might need
to give them some soft food for a couple of days,
and the vet might be able to prescribe some
painkillers for them as well. It can take a few days
for the back of the throat to heal up and feel that much better. I hope that’s been useful to you. So we are firstaidforpets.net,
with practical first aid training, and
we have online courses. We have short courses and
longer courses for you to learn immediate and important first aid elements for your pet, and we also
have First Aid for Dogs available on Amazon and
in all good bookstores. So, please contact us,
[email protected], or just visit our website. Many thanks, and look
forward to seeing you on another Facebook Live.

Cat Unconscious: What to Do | First Aid for Pets


Cat CPR, cardio pulmonary resuscitation. If you suspect your cat is unconscious, you need to have a look at them and see if you can see them breathing. It’s sometimes easier to do this holding a mirror and you can see if there’s breath coming out, otherwise use the back of your hand, and see if you can feel the breathing. Have a good look at them. Have a look at their gums. If their gums are looking blue, they haven’t got enough
oxygen in their system. Okay, so if they are unconsious, and you can’t see them breathing, you then need to feel for a pulse. So two fingers under their lower leg to feel the femoral artery, and you need to feel and push down quite firmly and you should be able to feel a pulse there. If you can’t feel a pulse, then they’re unconscious and not breathing and their heart isn’t beating. If you can feel a pulse and they are unconscious and not breathing, you would then lift them up, you would pull their
tongue forward a little bit to open the airway and see if that starts them breathing again. If it doesn’t, you need
to hold their mouth shut, and breathe into their nose. And you’re going to do
a short sharp breath. Remember your lungs are
bigger than a cat’s lungs, so you need to do a short, sharp sort of puff of your cheeks in, and hold them so that you can feel if their chest is rising when you’re breathing into them. So you would breathe in. A few breaths in, to see if that makes a difference. If they are unconscious and not breathing, but they do still have a pulse, then keep breathing into them, and get them to a vet quickly because they will need veterinary help. If they are unconscious and not breathing and they haven’t got a
pulse that you can feel, then you will need to do CPR. And you will be doing this by pushing hard and fast over where their heart is. So their heart is about here. So for a small cat or a kitten, you would use your
thumbs and you push down 120 beats per minute. Okay, hard and fast. If it’s a bigger cat,
you can use two hands and you can push down like that. 120 beats per minute, and you would do 30
compressions to two breaths. So if they’re unconscious
and they’re not breathing, you would start by giving them five rescue breaths similar
to how you did previously when you found that they had a pulse, but five of those, and then you would do 30 compressions to two breaths. 30 to two, 30 to two. Do not let this first aid delay you getting to the vet. So if you’re able to do this as you’re on the way to the vet,
that is by far the best. The quicker they can get
veterinary help, the better. And unfortunately, please bear in mind that bringing your cat back by doing CPR and having a
successful outcome is rare. So they will need veterinary help quickly, and the other thing, important thing to tell you is if it is not your cat, please make sure you have got consent from the owner to be doing CPR on the cat because the cat belongs to them. So that’s CPR for a cat.

First Aid on the Streets, Ep. 1: CPR


“Ah, ah, ah, ah, staying alive, staying alive Ah, ah, ah, ah, staying alive, staying alive” I might be a professional comedian but there’s nothing funny about providing first aid care That’s why I became a certified first aid instructor with the Canadian Red Cross and I’m headed to the streets to find out what you know about providing first aid care. Hey, hi, excuse me, this is not an emergency situation, I just want to talk to you about first aid, okay? Yeah, for sure. So how do you determine where to give a proper compression? Where do you think it is? Probably more centre of the chest. If you put your hand up like this and put it in your arm pit, right up to the top, then come straight across to the middle, right? You’ve got to be able to find with your palm where to go. Okay. “Staying Alive, Staying Alive, ah, ah, ah, ah, Staying Alive, Staying Alive” “Ah, ah, ah, ah, Staying Alive”… Place your hand and put it right underneath the armpit. So as soon as you slide right the chest to the centre, that’s exactly where you’ll start. Hi I’m Chris the mannequin And I want you to go to redcross.ca to sign up for a First Aid course so you can get the knowledge, skills, and the preparation to help people in an emergency situation. Just to be sure, by watching this video doesn’t mean you’re qualified to provide the first aid skills we’ve been talking about and any time you want to provide care, always ask first.

First Aid for Knocked Out Teeth

First Aid for Knocked Out Teeth


– Hello, I’m Emma Hammett
the founder and CEO of First Aid for Life,
firstaidforlife.org.uk. Today I’m going to cover what to do if you find someone has had a mouth injury. If they were cycling along and someone opened the car
door is a real classic one and they go straight into the door, it can knock out their teeth. If it’s a child playing at the swings and the swing flies up
and hits them in the face or they run into the side of a table, a small table or something,
they tripped over one of my son’s friends,
someone was playing a joke and they slapped him on the back and he went straight into his desk and knocked his front teeth out. If the tooth has come out in
its entirety, it can be saved. The priority however is
if you’ve got someone who has had a head injury. So if they’ve been hit hard in the face, do think that they may
well have some degree of whiplash and that they
could have a head injury. Those would be more serious injuries than the superficial injury
that is quite alarming because there will be a lot of blood because mouths bleed a lot
because they’re very vascular. Don’t be distracted
immediately by the blood loss. It’s more important to
just work out whether you think that they have had
a very serious head injury and could have any degree of spinal damage or head injury side of
things because of that. If it is just a mouth injury, then you’re priority will
be to stop the bleeding. Get them ideally to bite on something. A bit of clean non-fluffy cloth, whatever you happen to have. Clean non-fluffy, if you’re
a Mum you’ll probably have a muslin nappy,
well if you’re a new Mum, with you, that would be
great if it was a clean one. Get them to bite on that. If there are loose teeth, if they’re able to remove it themselves
then that would be good. If it is completely
loose and has fallen out. Any tooth that is there
with the root on it as I said before can be saved. Any bits of teeth that have been snapped, then I’m afraid you won’t be
able to do anything with those. If might still be worth
popping them in your pocket and taking them with you when you take the casualty to a good
dentist or a dental hospital. Your priority is to stop the bleeding. Get them to bite on a cloth. If you have a wrapped ice pack
that will reduce any swelling and then the key thing
then is to get them help. For the tooth itself, if
it has been knocked out in its entirety, if it
is popped into some milk, or some saliva, so you can
get them to spit into a pot, or you could spit into a pot, or if you are a loving
parent and you’re somewhere where there isn’t any milk or
a pot that you can spit into, you could put a child’s tooth
in the side of your mouth so long as you’re sure you’re
not going to swallow it. That saliva can keep that tooth alive until you get the casualty and the tooth to a good quality interventive dentist or a dental hospital where they can see whether
or not they can reimplant it. It’s unlikely they will
reimplant milk teeth. Very occasionally they
do, but it’s unlikely. But if it is a permanent tooth and it hasn’t got damaged and they feel that it is likely to take, then you’ve given them
the very best chance to be able to reimplant it. Don’t wash the tooth, don’t touch the root if you can avoid it. Just handle it very carefully
and get as quickly as you can for them to be treated. Don’t forget they have had a head injury so keep a lookout for
signs of anything unusual for the next 24 to 48 hours because you’re looking for after affects from the head injury. I hope that’s been helpful. That’s Emma Hammett
firstaidforlife.org.uk. There’s many more free
resources on our website.

First Aid for Schools: What do you Need?

First Aid for Schools: What do you Need?


Hello, I’m Emma Hammett
from First Aid for Life. Today, I’m going to talk to you about the first aid requirements in schools. Now in schools, it’s really important that you make appropriate first aid cover, provide appropriate first aid provision to comply with the Health
and Safety Executive for you as a business, as a school and to comply with the Ofsted, or if you’re a private school with the equivalent to
Ofsted requirements, in order to ensure that your staff and the children are safe and you have the necessary provision if
an accident should happen. It’s a legal requirement
for all businesses to make appropriate first aid provision and that is governed by the
Health and Safety Executive. So there is HSE provision
that needs to be covered and the Ofsted, so it’s
two different areas. And your duty of care, in terms of the Health and Safety Executive governs you as an employer and the safety and well-being of your employees. Now even if it was an individual running a business as
it was when I started up my first aid training business, you still need to make appropriate
provision for first aid. Now obviously in a school,
there’s going to be many more people than one person. But you need to make sure that you are caring for the welfare, you have appropriate audits to ensure that you have worked what
cover you actually need concerning the risks and that you have to go through exactly how
many buildings you have. So, if there’s a discreet location then that should have its own first aid cover and provision, as well. So, really important
that you’re taking note and making sure that you are looking at all the risks and the
sort of things that you do. So obviously, if you’re a Forest School, you’ll have even more
complex risk assessment that needs to be done in order to clarify exactly what first aid cover you need. You also, as well as your first aid cover, you need to ensure that you have appropriate numbers of first aid kits. Again, making sure that you have cover for discreet locations and it is also strongly recommended, not a legal requirement as yet, but strongly recommended that
you have a defibrillator. They do make a huge difference if you do have someone
who has cardiac arrest on site for whatever reason. If you’re able to get a defibrillator on their chest within three minutes and they’re in a shockable rhythm, the odds of them surviving
jumps from 6% to 74%. So, it’s a no brainer really. You need to make sure you’re looking at all those sides of things. If you’re a primary school
with an early years setting, some of your staff will need to do a 12 hour paediatric course and some of your staff will need to make sure that they complying with the Health and Safety
Executive requirements to ensure that you have the right number of First Aiders to look after your staff. So, we need to make sure. I can see some people coming on and saying, “Hello,” on
this, so thank you very much. Hello to you, too. So, I hope this is being useful. In terms of the duties of a First Aider, they need to, obviously, administer the first aid and make
sure that they can decide whether you need an ambulance or not. You need to make sure that people are appropriately trained
to be able to help in a variety of situations. Ideally, they’re going
to be covering instances such as playground incidents. So, you need to make sure that they know when it is appropriate. Obviously it’s a school, you don’t want ambulances called willy-nilly. A, it’s not great for your
school and its reputation. And B, it’s a complete waste of resources if they are unnecessary. So, you need someone appropriately trained to make the right decisions as to when an ambulance is necessary and when the First Aider themselves can be dealing with situation. Please don’t be tempted to pop a child into the car and drive
them to the hospital. If it’s a less serious problem, then the parent can come in
and take them to their GP or to a walk-in centre to be looked at. If it is a serious problem, you
obviously need an ambulance. But in terms of insurance
cover and things, it is not a good idea to
drive them in yourself. You need to make sure that you’ve got appropriate First Aiders,
so those are people that have done a regulated course, that are able to provide first aid. And ideally, you would
also have a larger number of people trained in basic first aid so that they can assist and support the First Aider and,
again, that they can know whether it is something really serious and whether it’s
something that needs to go to the First Aider, if
they’re on playground duty. Or whether it’s something that’s, just a sort of, bit of
cajoling and they will be okay. Now make sure, as well,
that everybody knows about asthma inhalers
and how to help them, where the child should
have their asthma inhaler, if they’re allowed to have them on them. Ideally that would be great
so that if they are having an asthma attack, they
have immediate access. The same with adrenaline auto-injectors. People should all be able to recognise the signs and symptoms,
so please make sure your dinner staff are
trained up to that, as well. Make sure that they know how to help if someone’s choking too. The thing about first aid
is you want to make sure that you’re treating things immediately and that way it isn’t a drama. If somebody is choking in the dinner hall and they’re able to identify that it is serious choking,
the child can’t cough and they’re able to put
their hand on their back and give them five hard back blows and dislodge the obstruction before there’s any
drama that has occurred, then isn’t that better than having to rush and wait for the First Aider? And then, “Oh my goodness.” The problem is dealt with and it’s sorted. The idea is you have enough people who are first aid trained
throughout your school so that they are able to identify quickly if something’s serious or not
and treat it appropriately. Make sure that children that have individual health care plans so they’re asthmatic,
maybe they’re epileptic. Epileptic, asthmatic
or they have a history of anaphylaxis, make sure
that that is flagged up to all the relevant
staff so that they know what they should do and how to get the medication to the child quickly and how to help them to treat it. Make sure that if there’s school trips that there is an appropriate First Aider on the trip and, also, make sure it isn’t your only First Aider that is going off on the trip so that the school is kept short, is short of First Aiders. You need to make sure that
you have enough people so that you have at least
one person per 50 people, at the very least, that
is available at all times and that is including cover for holidays and sickness and being off-site
and in different sites. If your First Aider is
down on the sports pitch, you need to make sure that you have another First Aider up in the main school. There should be a designated medical room that children can go to and accidents do need to be recorded appropriately, on the right forms. And, you can get some great forms that allow you to keep a
copy without rewriting it. I’ve been to schools before where they’ve been photocopying the forms. There’s no need, you
can get the right forms that are all sorted and
there are various systems, as well, that can help you with this. I hope that’s helpful. That’s just a brief overview. We’ve got lots more information on our blogs, on First Aid for Life and in the article I’ve written for the British Journal of School Nursing on exactly what the first aid
requirements are in schools. And don’t forget, as well, that first aid is now part of the curriculum. So make sure that you have
made the right provision for your children to be properly trained. Please don’t just do lip service to this. Make sure that you’ve
gone through a system, either to get them an online course or a practical course in order to ensure that these skills are taught properly. I hope that’s been helpful. That’s Emma Hammett
from First Aid for Life.

Stepped on a Sea Urchin | Holiday First Aid

Stepped on a Sea Urchin | Holiday First Aid


– Hello, I’m Emma Hammett,
the founder and CEO of First Aid for Life
and onlinefirstaid.com. I’m on holiday at the moment. I’m in sunny Ljubljana, which
is absolutely beautiful. While we’ve been away
on the coastal areas, there have been a lot
of sea urchins around. And, something I’m asked
often is how should you deal with it if you happen
to tread on a sea urchin. First of all, sea urchins are sweet. You can hold them in your hand. They don’t look to hurt you. But, if you happen to tread on them, they are covered in sharp, sharp barbs, similar to a porcupine, except these barbs have got little arrows that
go the other way as well. So, if you happen to tread on one, not only do the barbs go into you, but they are much harder
to pull out again. So, if you get a barb or
anything within your skin, it’s prone to get infected. So, the important thing to do is if you tread on a sea
urchin, and you end up with some of those barbs embedded, or those spines embedded in your foot, or you put your hand on them
and they’re in your hand, what you need to do is
to get some tweezers and do your best to pull out the spines as quickly as you can, and to ensure you get all of the spine out. Because, the problem happens
if any of the residual bits are left inside your skin,
and then they become infected. Please don’t be tempted to probe around with a needle to try and dig bits out, because that will just
make things sore and messy. If you’ve got bits that are embedded, then the advice is to put them in as hot water as you can stand
without burning yourself, and then squeeze to see
if you can get them out. Other people suggest
doing things like vinegar, which apparently dissolves the spines. However, I’m a bit sceptical about that because the concentration
of vinegar you’d need to dissolve the spines
would be pretty hefty, and it would be a slow process. So, the general advice is hot water, as hot as you can manage,
and squeeze the spines out, being careful that you are
getting it all out as well. Other advice you might find online is for people to get as many of the spines as they can out with tweezers, and then to shave the area. I would, again, strongly
dissuade you from doing that because then you’re just removing any bits that you could potentially
grab with tweezers as they work themselves out. Most of the time the sea urchin spikes will work their way out,
and they won’t cause you any long term damage. But, if you do see any signs of infection, so, redness, swellingness,
you start to feel unwell or anything, you do need
to get medical help, and you may need antibiotics. I hope that’s been helpful. The key thing of all
is to prevent treading on the sea urchins’ spikes
in the first place anyway. And, wear thick-soled swimming shoes, and avoid any of those lovely, dark, fluffy looking bits
that are most definitely not fluffy under the sea. So, just be wary of
treading on sea urchins in the first place. Thank you very much, and I
hope you have a lovely holiday. That’s Emma Hammett
from First Aid for Life and onlinefirstaid.com.

Eye Injuries

Eye Injuries


Now let’s cover the topic of eye injuries,
of which there can be a couple of main types. One is an object embedded in the eye. The
other is a chemical in the eye. In this case, we’re going to be first addressing the object
in the eye. In this case we know that the worker was by a grinding wheel, and potentially
one of the brushes may have flown off the wheel and embedded in their eye. They’re in
a great deal of pain. We’ve gone ahead and assessed for scene safety, our gloves are
on, and also the patient is not suffering from airway, breathing, or circulation problems
at this time, so they’re remaining fairly stable. We guided them to a place where they
could be sat down carefully and now treated, and here’s what we’re going to do. We find
a cup. It’s important to understand that we want to actually get something that goes over
the wounded eye so that we don’t put any pressure on the object that’s embedded in the eye.
The second thing too is, if you have a medical grade cup, that’s fine, but you could also
use a Dixie cup or a drinking cup, a styrofoam cup, a coffee cup. It really doesn’t matter.
It doesn’t have to be overly large, because that’s going to cause some problems in trying
to bandage around it, so the smaller, the better. But we do want it to be at least deep
enough that it keeps the pressure off from that eye. The second point to make is that
we want to bandage both eyes shut because eyes tend to move together. So if we leave
one eye unbandaged so the person can see, when they move that eye they will also be
moving the affected eye, and we don’t want to cause further harm. The third point, and
lastly, we can have the patient assist us, when we’re having them hold the cup or hold
things in place while we bandage. So here we are. I’m just going to go ahead and put
this cup over your affected eye, ma’am. Go ahead and take your hand away. Now can you
hold that cup in place? Now the second thing I’m going to do– and be sure to talk to your
patient. They’re kind of blind at this point, so you want to be really communicating with
them, instead of making them guess what they’re feeling, like, “Now I’m putting a cup on your
eye, and now I’m going to throw a bandage on your eye.” Explain what you’re going to
do before you do it, so we don’t shock them. And then the other thing to remember too is,
once this is all bandaged, they’re blind. We’re going to have to lead them as if they
are blind, making sure to remind them where to step, how to step, so they don’t fall down.
And ideally we’re going to transport this patient via EMS, because there’s things that
we can do en route that might not be able to be done in a private car. But if the EMS
is not an option, private car may work as long as the patient is stable and doesn’t
have any other injuries that would stop them from being transported. So I took another
4×4 gauze. If you had an actual eye bandage, you could use that, certainly, but a 4×4 gauze
is not a problem either. Ma’am, I’m going to put this over your non-affected eye, and
you can hold that in place, and I’m just going to wrap a gauze around both of them. Go ahead
and let go of the cup side. I’m going to put a bandage around. Let me know if that hurts
at all, okay? Not the eye that’s hurt, but I mean, as I’m wrapping, any new pain. Now
I’m going to go ahead and wrap around this. You can let go. And I’m just going to continue
here. I know that’s over your nose, but I’ll move that in just a second, okay? I’m going
to continue to bandage around, and probably just a good couple times. You just want to
make sure that the cup is not going to slip. And then once you come back around to the
other side, we tuck the excess in underneath the bandage, as long as it’s not putting too
much pressure. Or you could always tape it in place. Is that fairly comfortable, ma’am?
I’m going to go ahead and lift this over your nose so you can breathe okay. Now the patient
is packaged and ready to go. Now we’re going to be doing our secondary survey, which is
doing a double-check. This is a pretty distracting injury, so it could take our eyes, our eyes
as rescuers, off from other things that might be happening. Maybe she fell after she got
the injury in the eye and hit her head. So we’re always going to be assessing for level
of consciousness, airway, breathing, circulation, signs of shock, and treating accordingly,
as we get this person into definitive care and back on track. And now let’s take a look
at the other type of eye injury, which is chemical burns. Whether a dry chemical or
a liquid chemical, it can cause a great amount of damage to this eye and the mucous membrane
of the eye in a relatively short amount of time. So getting the person to a position
where we can actually start to dilute the chemical as soon as possible is essential.
Now we would like to use a balanced solution as far as pH goes, but if you only have the
tap water out of a sink, or you have bottled water, drinking water, anything is going to
be better than nothing. If it’s a dry chemical, we’re going to brush as much of the excess
off as we can before we begin to dilute it and flush the eye. If it’s a liquid, we’re
just going to begin flushing. A key point here: If it’s one affected eye, we want to
go from the inside of the eye and rinse to the outside. We don’t want to cross-contaminate
eyeballs. We don’t want to flush from outside in, as it can then run over the bridge of
the nose into the non-affected eye. Now we’ve got chemical exposure to both eyes. Remember
that we’re going to flush for no less than 20 minutes to dilute and to bring the solution
into a position where it’s not causing damage. We’re going to transport this person to an
emergency room as soon as possible, and we’re going to watch for other life-threatening
issues. Remember, the chemical that went in the eye could have also gotten into the mouth,
nose, or airway, so we don’t want to take for granted that this is an isolated injury.
So we’re going to continue to assess our patient from head to toe, looking for life-threatening
situations like airway, breathing, circulation, or shock symptoms, and treat accordingly,
and then continue to flush those eyeballs out so that we can get the chemical out and
stop the burning from happening.