Stepped on a Sea Urchin | Holiday First Aid

Stepped on a Sea Urchin | Holiday First Aid


– Hello, I’m Emma Hammett,
the founder and CEO of First Aid for Life
and onlinefirstaid.com. I’m on holiday at the moment. I’m in sunny Ljubljana, which
is absolutely beautiful. While we’ve been away
on the coastal areas, there have been a lot
of sea urchins around. And, something I’m asked
often is how should you deal with it if you happen
to tread on a sea urchin. First of all, sea urchins are sweet. You can hold them in your hand. They don’t look to hurt you. But, if you happen to tread on them, they are covered in sharp, sharp barbs, similar to a porcupine, except these barbs have got little arrows that
go the other way as well. So, if you happen to tread on one, not only do the barbs go into you, but they are much harder
to pull out again. So, if you get a barb or
anything within your skin, it’s prone to get infected. So, the important thing to do is if you tread on a sea
urchin, and you end up with some of those barbs embedded, or those spines embedded in your foot, or you put your hand on them
and they’re in your hand, what you need to do is
to get some tweezers and do your best to pull out the spines as quickly as you can, and to ensure you get all of the spine out. Because, the problem happens
if any of the residual bits are left inside your skin,
and then they become infected. Please don’t be tempted to probe around with a needle to try and dig bits out, because that will just
make things sore and messy. If you’ve got bits that are embedded, then the advice is to put them in as hot water as you can stand
without burning yourself, and then squeeze to see
if you can get them out. Other people suggest
doing things like vinegar, which apparently dissolves the spines. However, I’m a bit sceptical about that because the concentration
of vinegar you’d need to dissolve the spines
would be pretty hefty, and it would be a slow process. So, the general advice is hot water, as hot as you can manage,
and squeeze the spines out, being careful that you are
getting it all out as well. Other advice you might find online is for people to get as many of the spines as they can out with tweezers, and then to shave the area. I would, again, strongly
dissuade you from doing that because then you’re just removing any bits that you could potentially
grab with tweezers as they work themselves out. Most of the time the sea urchin spikes will work their way out,
and they won’t cause you any long term damage. But, if you do see any signs of infection, so, redness, swellingness,
you start to feel unwell or anything, you do need
to get medical help, and you may need antibiotics. I hope that’s been helpful. The key thing of all
is to prevent treading on the sea urchins’ spikes
in the first place anyway. And, wear thick-soled swimming shoes, and avoid any of those lovely, dark, fluffy looking bits
that are most definitely not fluffy under the sea. So, just be wary of
treading on sea urchins in the first place. Thank you very much, and I
hope you have a lovely holiday. That’s Emma Hammett
from First Aid for Life and onlinefirstaid.com.

Eye Injuries

Eye Injuries


Now let’s cover the topic of eye injuries,
of which there can be a couple of main types. One is an object embedded in the eye. The
other is a chemical in the eye. In this case, we’re going to be first addressing the object
in the eye. In this case we know that the worker was by a grinding wheel, and potentially
one of the brushes may have flown off the wheel and embedded in their eye. They’re in
a great deal of pain. We’ve gone ahead and assessed for scene safety, our gloves are
on, and also the patient is not suffering from airway, breathing, or circulation problems
at this time, so they’re remaining fairly stable. We guided them to a place where they
could be sat down carefully and now treated, and here’s what we’re going to do. We find
a cup. It’s important to understand that we want to actually get something that goes over
the wounded eye so that we don’t put any pressure on the object that’s embedded in the eye.
The second thing too is, if you have a medical grade cup, that’s fine, but you could also
use a Dixie cup or a drinking cup, a styrofoam cup, a coffee cup. It really doesn’t matter.
It doesn’t have to be overly large, because that’s going to cause some problems in trying
to bandage around it, so the smaller, the better. But we do want it to be at least deep
enough that it keeps the pressure off from that eye. The second point to make is that
we want to bandage both eyes shut because eyes tend to move together. So if we leave
one eye unbandaged so the person can see, when they move that eye they will also be
moving the affected eye, and we don’t want to cause further harm. The third point, and
lastly, we can have the patient assist us, when we’re having them hold the cup or hold
things in place while we bandage. So here we are. I’m just going to go ahead and put
this cup over your affected eye, ma’am. Go ahead and take your hand away. Now can you
hold that cup in place? Now the second thing I’m going to do– and be sure to talk to your
patient. They’re kind of blind at this point, so you want to be really communicating with
them, instead of making them guess what they’re feeling, like, “Now I’m putting a cup on your
eye, and now I’m going to throw a bandage on your eye.” Explain what you’re going to
do before you do it, so we don’t shock them. And then the other thing to remember too is,
once this is all bandaged, they’re blind. We’re going to have to lead them as if they
are blind, making sure to remind them where to step, how to step, so they don’t fall down.
And ideally we’re going to transport this patient via EMS, because there’s things that
we can do en route that might not be able to be done in a private car. But if the EMS
is not an option, private car may work as long as the patient is stable and doesn’t
have any other injuries that would stop them from being transported. So I took another
4×4 gauze. If you had an actual eye bandage, you could use that, certainly, but a 4×4 gauze
is not a problem either. Ma’am, I’m going to put this over your non-affected eye, and
you can hold that in place, and I’m just going to wrap a gauze around both of them. Go ahead
and let go of the cup side. I’m going to put a bandage around. Let me know if that hurts
at all, okay? Not the eye that’s hurt, but I mean, as I’m wrapping, any new pain. Now
I’m going to go ahead and wrap around this. You can let go. And I’m just going to continue
here. I know that’s over your nose, but I’ll move that in just a second, okay? I’m going
to continue to bandage around, and probably just a good couple times. You just want to
make sure that the cup is not going to slip. And then once you come back around to the
other side, we tuck the excess in underneath the bandage, as long as it’s not putting too
much pressure. Or you could always tape it in place. Is that fairly comfortable, ma’am?
I’m going to go ahead and lift this over your nose so you can breathe okay. Now the patient
is packaged and ready to go. Now we’re going to be doing our secondary survey, which is
doing a double-check. This is a pretty distracting injury, so it could take our eyes, our eyes
as rescuers, off from other things that might be happening. Maybe she fell after she got
the injury in the eye and hit her head. So we’re always going to be assessing for level
of consciousness, airway, breathing, circulation, signs of shock, and treating accordingly,
as we get this person into definitive care and back on track. And now let’s take a look
at the other type of eye injury, which is chemical burns. Whether a dry chemical or
a liquid chemical, it can cause a great amount of damage to this eye and the mucous membrane
of the eye in a relatively short amount of time. So getting the person to a position
where we can actually start to dilute the chemical as soon as possible is essential.
Now we would like to use a balanced solution as far as pH goes, but if you only have the
tap water out of a sink, or you have bottled water, drinking water, anything is going to
be better than nothing. If it’s a dry chemical, we’re going to brush as much of the excess
off as we can before we begin to dilute it and flush the eye. If it’s a liquid, we’re
just going to begin flushing. A key point here: If it’s one affected eye, we want to
go from the inside of the eye and rinse to the outside. We don’t want to cross-contaminate
eyeballs. We don’t want to flush from outside in, as it can then run over the bridge of
the nose into the non-affected eye. Now we’ve got chemical exposure to both eyes. Remember
that we’re going to flush for no less than 20 minutes to dilute and to bring the solution
into a position where it’s not causing damage. We’re going to transport this person to an
emergency room as soon as possible, and we’re going to watch for other life-threatening
issues. Remember, the chemical that went in the eye could have also gotten into the mouth,
nose, or airway, so we don’t want to take for granted that this is an isolated injury.
So we’re going to continue to assess our patient from head to toe, looking for life-threatening
situations like airway, breathing, circulation, or shock symptoms, and treat accordingly,
and then continue to flush those eyeballs out so that we can get the chemical out and
stop the burning from happening.

First Aid in Remote Locations – an unscripted overview!

First Aid in Remote Locations – an unscripted overview!


Hi I’m Alastair I am one of the trainers
that works on the First Aid in Remote Locations training course run by Lazarus
training as the name kind of suggests the course is designed for people
working in remote locations mainly media staff so thinking of production teams or
production companies that are traveling around filming in a variety of locations
the course covers a wide variety of topics ranging from things like the
obvious casualty assessments for major injuries like a big bleed we then
move into things like managing the airway and breathing we work our way
through to other injuries so talk about things like broken bones and burns but
we also have to then consider the different environments that people might
be working in so we look at the conditions that may be created by being
in hot environments then in cold environments and we also look at dealing
with people who may be ill due to working at altitude now the other thing
about the first-aid in remote locations course that we are quite proud about is
that whilst it’s only a three day course we’ve crammed a lot of material in and
we also bear in mind that sometimes when you’re working in remote locations you
might not be able to get to medical care very very quickly so we bring in context
of looking after somebody potentially looking after somebody overnight and
there’s no set definition of what a remote location is but one of the things
that we consider is that it means that you’re remote from medical help and
potentially you might even have to go and seek medical help i.e. take your
colleague with you to a hospital and so we look at that side of things about how
we might move somebody how we might stabilize fractures before moving
somebody and even how we might turn our vehicle into an ambulance now other
things that we’ll cover within this training is that we look at the
consequences of travel – travel health someone much wiser than me said once
that travel broadens the mind and loosens the bowels so we look at things
ranging from traveller’s diarrhoea through all the horrible bugs and
beasties that might get on your body or trying bite bits out of you or try to
live in you horrifically but we also look at things like vector-borne diseases
let’s say malaria and up to 35 other diseases transmitted by the same vector
so all in all a really tight package as I said already only lasts for three days
it’s aimed at people that are going to be working remote locations
but don’t want to become full-time medics so we keep it nice and simple
there’s loads of practical elements to it you’re looking at on average four or
five casualty simulations per day and that’s with a real-life person as a
casualty not a mannequin and we found that the course has been really well
received we’ve been running it now for about four years in the media sector so
we’re on kind of like version 2.4 or whatever it might be
and we’re constantly learning ourselves we’re picking up information from the
people doing the courses and finding out what they would like to see covered in
it and in fact we’re just in the process of doing another rewrite so if any of
you have attended the courses those of you that work in that kind of area if you’ve
got suggestions then feel free to drop them through to us and in fact we’d just
be keen to hear everyone’s feedback now if you’re watching this on YouTube I
think you can probably comment down below if you’re watching it on our
Facebook page probably the same and if you’re watching
this embedded into the respective page on our website then there’s a comment
area at the bottom of the page so feel free to get in touch
we’d love to hear from you and if you want to know any more about the
first-aid in remote locations course do feel free to get in touch

How to Treat an Injured Bleeding Baby – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance

How to Treat an Injured Bleeding Baby – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance


As your baby crawls around your home or outside, they can very easily graze or cut themselves. Most of the time the injury will not be too bad, but sometimes there can be serious bleeding. If there is blood flowing from a wound and it doesn’t stop, your baby has severe bleeding. To treat a severe bleed, remove any clothing from the area your baby is bleeding from. If there’s something in the wound, leave it where it is and apply pressure around the wound to try to push the edges together. If there’s nothing in the wound, apply pressure directly to it with a sterile dressing or a clean, non-fluffy pad. Next you need to ask a helper to call 999 or 112 for emergency help. Or if there is no one around to help, use a mobile on speakerphone so you can keep treating your baby while you speak to the emergency services. Tell them where the bleeding is and the amount of bleeding. Apply a firm bandage around the dressing on top of the wound. It needs to maintain pressure, but not restrict the circulation. Check the circulation by pressing a fingernail on the skin around the bandage for five seconds, release the pressure and if the colour does not return within two seconds the bandage is too tight and you should loosen it. Severe bleeding can lead to shock, so make sure they are lying down on a blanket or rug to protect them from the cold and raise their legs, but don’t raise an injured leg. You could hold a small baby in the recovery position. If the blood soaks through the dressing, apply a second dressing on top of the first. If it soaks through both, remove both dressings and apply a new one. Keep checking circulation every 10 minutes. While you’re waiting for help to arrive, keep checking your baby’s breathing and level of response. So remember, if your baby has a severe bleed, apply pressure around the wound if there’s something stuck in it, or apply direct pressure to the wound if it’s clear. Call 999 or 112 for emergency help and tell them where the bleeding is and the amount. Secure the dressing and check circulation, if blood comes through apply a second dressing. But if blood comes through both, take them both off and start again. Check circulation every 10 minutes, keep checking your baby’s breathing and level of response while you wait for help. And that’s how you treat a baby who’s got a severe bleed. Thanks for watching. Help support St John Ambulance and donate today.

First Aid – Open The Airway: Child

First Aid – Open The Airway: Child


Opening the airway for a child. When you’re unconscious,
your muscles relax. Your tongue is a huge, great muscle attached to your bottom jaw. People talk about swallowing your tongue. You can’t swallow your tongue. But what they mean is
that the tongue relaxes and it ends up flopping down
and blocking your airway. The way to open someone’s airway is to tilt the head and lift the chin. It takes the back of the tongue off the back of the airway. Now, for an adult, you’d
go all the way back. For a child, you put one hand on the head, two fingers on the chin and you don’t have to go quite as far back. And that will be all that needs to happen to open the airway. So it may be that they
weren’t breathing before and when you open the
airway, they start breathing, which is great to know. The other problem that you have is that the sphincter that keeps the contents of your
stomach in your stomach relaxes and opens when you’re unconscious. So if you are lying on your back, the contents of your
stomach will trickle up and drip into your lungs. This is why the recovery
position is so important. Because if you’re in
the recovery position, the contents of your stomach
will then trickle out and they won’t end up
causing any problems.

How to Move an Injured Dog

How to Move an Injured Dog


If you suspect that your animal might have a spinal
injury, the important thing is to stop them twisting,
prevent them twisting. So you will need to
transport them to the vet’s and you would do that ideally
by supporting the head and neck, keeping the spine
in line, just trying very hard not to twist their spine as you go over and you can use a parcel shelf or a
blanket to very carefully put them into the recovery position
and lift them into the car so that you can take them to
the vet for veterinary care.

First Aid for Splints & Bleeding Wounds : How to Apply First Aid to a Gun Shot Wound

First Aid for Splints & Bleeding Wounds : How to Apply First Aid to a Gun Shot Wound


My name is Alv Rios and I am a paramedic with
Lansing Mercy Ambulance on behalf of Expert Village. In this clip we are going to go over
the treatment of a gunshot wound. What you want to do for a gunshot wound is you want
to make sure that you have closed up the wound. We are going to say that the gunshot wound
has gone through the chest. This is now referred to as a sucking chest wound. Because every
time you take a deep breath what’s going to happen now is your air is going to be pulled
through the easiest resistance. Normally that would be through your mouth but because there
is now a hole through the chest it’s actually going to pull air through that which is not
going to adequately get to the tissues it needs to in the lungs. So what you need to
do is seal up that hole. There is different techniques and ways you can do that. Some
of them are taking something such as a simple plain cloth. What you then want to do is cover
it in something such as Vaseline. By covering it in Vaseline you are making it both resistant
to air and water getting through and it also has a little bit of a sticky surface now and
you are able to stick it right over the injury site. Normally it will actually hold itself
on. Another thing you can do then is secure it on with tape. You could also use something
such as saran wrap. Preferably you want to use something sterile. If you do choose to
use whether it’s Vaseline gauze or if you use the saran wrap once you have it in place.
It’s important you want to let air out but not in. So what you want to do is create kind
of a flutter valve. What you are going to do is take three quarters across take down
and another side you are going to leave one corner exposed. When you take a deep breath
in the wound will suck in and seal its own opening. But when the person exhales air is
able to escape through and go through the actual flutter valve you have left open. This
allows for the pressure in the chest to equalize to normal.

What to do if Your Baby has a Burn or Scald – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance

What to do if Your Baby has a Burn or Scald – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance


As your baby crawls or toddles around exploring the world, they may come into contact with something that can burn or scald them.
A burn is usually caused by dry heat, like a flame or a fire, a hot iron, or sunburn.
A scald is caused by wet heat, like steam or a hot cup of tea.
If your baby has a burn or scald you might see some of these signs.
They may cry or have pain in the area They may have a reddened, swollen patch of skin They may have blisters
Or they may have peeling skin If you think your baby has a burn or scald,
move them away from the source of the heat. Cool the burn or scald by running it under
cold water, for at least 10 minutes. Don’t use ice, gels or creams on the area
– they can damage the affected skin and increase the risk of infection.
Remove the clothing from around the burn. If the clothing is stuck to the skin, don’t try to remove it. Cover the burn with cling film or a clean plastic bag. Get rid of the first few centimeters, place a single sheet over the burn and scrunch the edges. But don’t wrap it around the limb.This protects it from infection. Always seek medical advice if your baby has a burn or a scald.
If the burn or scald is on the baby’s face, hands or feet, or if the injured area is larger
than the size of the baby’s hand, or if it is a deep burn, then it’s a serious
burn or scald. Serious burns or scalds need emergency treatment,
so call 999 or 112. While you wait for the ambulance, treat your
baby for shock if necessary. So remember, move them away from the heat Cool the burn with water for at least 10 minutes. Protect the burn with cling film.
Call 999 or 112 for an ambulance. And that’s how you treat a baby with a burn
or scald. Thanks for watching, help support St John Ambulance, donate today