Stepped on a Sea Urchin | Holiday First Aid

Stepped on a Sea Urchin | Holiday First Aid


– Hello, I’m Emma Hammett,
the founder and CEO of First Aid for Life
and onlinefirstaid.com. I’m on holiday at the moment. I’m in sunny Ljubljana, which
is absolutely beautiful. While we’ve been away
on the coastal areas, there have been a lot
of sea urchins around. And, something I’m asked
often is how should you deal with it if you happen
to tread on a sea urchin. First of all, sea urchins are sweet. You can hold them in your hand. They don’t look to hurt you. But, if you happen to tread on them, they are covered in sharp, sharp barbs, similar to a porcupine, except these barbs have got little arrows that
go the other way as well. So, if you happen to tread on one, not only do the barbs go into you, but they are much harder
to pull out again. So, if you get a barb or
anything within your skin, it’s prone to get infected. So, the important thing to do is if you tread on a sea
urchin, and you end up with some of those barbs embedded, or those spines embedded in your foot, or you put your hand on them
and they’re in your hand, what you need to do is
to get some tweezers and do your best to pull out the spines as quickly as you can, and to ensure you get all of the spine out. Because, the problem happens
if any of the residual bits are left inside your skin,
and then they become infected. Please don’t be tempted to probe around with a needle to try and dig bits out, because that will just
make things sore and messy. If you’ve got bits that are embedded, then the advice is to put them in as hot water as you can stand
without burning yourself, and then squeeze to see
if you can get them out. Other people suggest
doing things like vinegar, which apparently dissolves the spines. However, I’m a bit sceptical about that because the concentration
of vinegar you’d need to dissolve the spines
would be pretty hefty, and it would be a slow process. So, the general advice is hot water, as hot as you can manage,
and squeeze the spines out, being careful that you are
getting it all out as well. Other advice you might find online is for people to get as many of the spines as they can out with tweezers, and then to shave the area. I would, again, strongly
dissuade you from doing that because then you’re just removing any bits that you could potentially
grab with tweezers as they work themselves out. Most of the time the sea urchin spikes will work their way out,
and they won’t cause you any long term damage. But, if you do see any signs of infection, so, redness, swellingness,
you start to feel unwell or anything, you do need
to get medical help, and you may need antibiotics. I hope that’s been helpful. The key thing of all
is to prevent treading on the sea urchins’ spikes
in the first place anyway. And, wear thick-soled swimming shoes, and avoid any of those lovely, dark, fluffy looking bits
that are most definitely not fluffy under the sea. So, just be wary of
treading on sea urchins in the first place. Thank you very much, and I
hope you have a lovely holiday. That’s Emma Hammett
from First Aid for Life and onlinefirstaid.com.

How to Treat an Injured Bleeding Baby – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance

How to Treat an Injured Bleeding Baby – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance


As your baby crawls around your home or outside, they can very easily graze or cut themselves. Most of the time the injury will not be too bad, but sometimes there can be serious bleeding. If there is blood flowing from a wound and it doesn’t stop, your baby has severe bleeding. To treat a severe bleed, remove any clothing from the area your baby is bleeding from. If there’s something in the wound, leave it where it is and apply pressure around the wound to try to push the edges together. If there’s nothing in the wound, apply pressure directly to it with a sterile dressing or a clean, non-fluffy pad. Next you need to ask a helper to call 999 or 112 for emergency help. Or if there is no one around to help, use a mobile on speakerphone so you can keep treating your baby while you speak to the emergency services. Tell them where the bleeding is and the amount of bleeding. Apply a firm bandage around the dressing on top of the wound. It needs to maintain pressure, but not restrict the circulation. Check the circulation by pressing a fingernail on the skin around the bandage for five seconds, release the pressure and if the colour does not return within two seconds the bandage is too tight and you should loosen it. Severe bleeding can lead to shock, so make sure they are lying down on a blanket or rug to protect them from the cold and raise their legs, but don’t raise an injured leg. You could hold a small baby in the recovery position. If the blood soaks through the dressing, apply a second dressing on top of the first. If it soaks through both, remove both dressings and apply a new one. Keep checking circulation every 10 minutes. While you’re waiting for help to arrive, keep checking your baby’s breathing and level of response. So remember, if your baby has a severe bleed, apply pressure around the wound if there’s something stuck in it, or apply direct pressure to the wound if it’s clear. Call 999 or 112 for emergency help and tell them where the bleeding is and the amount. Secure the dressing and check circulation, if blood comes through apply a second dressing. But if blood comes through both, take them both off and start again. Check circulation every 10 minutes, keep checking your baby’s breathing and level of response while you wait for help. And that’s how you treat a baby who’s got a severe bleed. Thanks for watching. Help support St John Ambulance and donate today.

First Aid – Open The Airway: Child

First Aid – Open The Airway: Child


Opening the airway for a child. When you’re unconscious,
your muscles relax. Your tongue is a huge, great muscle attached to your bottom jaw. People talk about swallowing your tongue. You can’t swallow your tongue. But what they mean is
that the tongue relaxes and it ends up flopping down
and blocking your airway. The way to open someone’s airway is to tilt the head and lift the chin. It takes the back of the tongue off the back of the airway. Now, for an adult, you’d
go all the way back. For a child, you put one hand on the head, two fingers on the chin and you don’t have to go quite as far back. And that will be all that needs to happen to open the airway. So it may be that they
weren’t breathing before and when you open the
airway, they start breathing, which is great to know. The other problem that you have is that the sphincter that keeps the contents of your
stomach in your stomach relaxes and opens when you’re unconscious. So if you are lying on your back, the contents of your
stomach will trickle up and drip into your lungs. This is why the recovery
position is so important. Because if you’re in
the recovery position, the contents of your stomach
will then trickle out and they won’t end up
causing any problems.

How to Move an Injured Dog

How to Move an Injured Dog


If you suspect that your animal might have a spinal
injury, the important thing is to stop them twisting,
prevent them twisting. So you will need to
transport them to the vet’s and you would do that ideally
by supporting the head and neck, keeping the spine
in line, just trying very hard not to twist their spine as you go over and you can use a parcel shelf or a
blanket to very carefully put them into the recovery position
and lift them into the car so that you can take them to
the vet for veterinary care.

What to do if Your Baby has a Burn or Scald – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance

What to do if Your Baby has a Burn or Scald – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance


As your baby crawls or toddles around exploring the world, they may come into contact with something that can burn or scald them.
A burn is usually caused by dry heat, like a flame or a fire, a hot iron, or sunburn.
A scald is caused by wet heat, like steam or a hot cup of tea.
If your baby has a burn or scald you might see some of these signs.
They may cry or have pain in the area They may have a reddened, swollen patch of skin They may have blisters
Or they may have peeling skin If you think your baby has a burn or scald,
move them away from the source of the heat. Cool the burn or scald by running it under
cold water, for at least 10 minutes. Don’t use ice, gels or creams on the area
– they can damage the affected skin and increase the risk of infection.
Remove the clothing from around the burn. If the clothing is stuck to the skin, don’t try to remove it. Cover the burn with cling film or a clean plastic bag. Get rid of the first few centimeters, place a single sheet over the burn and scrunch the edges. But don’t wrap it around the limb.This protects it from infection. Always seek medical advice if your baby has a burn or a scald.
If the burn or scald is on the baby’s face, hands or feet, or if the injured area is larger
than the size of the baby’s hand, or if it is a deep burn, then it’s a serious
burn or scald. Serious burns or scalds need emergency treatment,
so call 999 or 112. While you wait for the ambulance, treat your
baby for shock if necessary. So remember, move them away from the heat Cool the burn with water for at least 10 minutes. Protect the burn with cling film.
Call 999 or 112 for an ambulance. And that’s how you treat a baby with a burn
or scald. Thanks for watching, help support St John Ambulance, donate today

Nose Bleed First Aid

Nose Bleed First Aid


– Nose bleeds. Nose bleeds are incredibly common. Particularly with small children who have little blood
vessels inside their noses and when they run around and get hot, those blood vessels expand and dilate, and they burst. They’re tiny little blood vessels but they can produce a lot of blood because your face is very vascular. So what you need to do if somebody’s having a nose bleed, is sit them down, lean them forward, and hold their nose. In holding their nose, what you are doing, is applying pressure to
the outside of the nose to try and squeeze the blood vessel inside against this sort of brittle
on the side of your nose, to stop the bleeding. And it takes about 10
minutes worth of pressure to stop the bleeding properly. So, if it’s quite a severe nose bleed, you would expect to be sitting there, and holding their nose
for a good 10 minutes. So if they’re old enough
to hold it themselves then fantastic. Lean them forward, ideally over a bowl or
a sink or something, or have something to catch the blood. Don’t be tempted to put their head back, because all that would happen there, is that the blood will go
down the back of their throat, and it will make them feel sick. You also can’t see whether or not you have
stopped the bleeding if they’re back. Where as when they’re forward
you can see quite clearly. So you hold it for 10 minutes. When you let go, if it starts again, you’ll need to hold it again, and then hold it again further
if it’s still bleeding. If they’re not losing
huge amounts of blood, it will feel like a lot, but if it’s not huge amounts of the blood, then it will stop eventually. If you think their nose might be broken, then obviously they will need
to be taken to hospital to, to get it seen to. But you will still need to apply pressure to stop the blood coming out. If you have a very severe nose bleed and you honestly can’t
stop it with the pressure, then they may need some
medical support and help.

How to Stop the Bleed

How to Stop the Bleed


you can learn how to stop the bleed if
the steps are simple and by learning how to stop the bleed you can save lives in
stopping the bleed is all about compressing basically we need to find a
way to put pressure on that wound to make it stop bleeding if you don’t have
anything with you then you’re going to use direct pressure and how’s that work
let’s use our simulated leg here and let’s say this is an injury that’s
bleeding pretty heavily I’m just going to put pressure on it with my hands
I might have to straighten out my elbows I might have to kneel on the ground I
put my shoulders right over my hands and I’m gonna push down fairly firmly and
make that bleeding stop most bleeding will stop just by doing
this alone now of course once I do this I can’t do anything else I can’t stop
press compressing I should not check to see if the bleeding is stopped if this
is working I’m going to keep doing this until EMS and first responders arrive
let’s say though you do have a trauma kit with you what else could you do this
is an example of a trauma kit such as we issue during our stop the bleed course
here in UC San Diego and there are several things inside here that can help
you with stopping the bleed I’m gonna open this kit up and the first thing
we’ll find inside of it is a tourniquet you’re also going to find a set of heavy
gloves you’ll find a compression dressing you’re gonna find a packing
gauze and you’ll find a marker to use the tourniquet what we need to do is
first open it up if we simply take two sides of loose and pull the tourniquet
will open up into a nice big loop in this way we can put the tourniquet over
the end of an extremity simply by putting the large extremity through the
loop then we pull on the red strap and we snug this down fairly firmly if you
make this tight at this step it gets much easier to apply the tourniquet so
we’ll put that on nice and tight and bring the strap around up to but not
through the clip yet then we’ll take the win last rod and begin to twist it it
doesn’t matter which way you twist it the tourniquet will tighten keep
twisting until the bleeding stops the patient will find this uncomfortable and
you’ll have to reassure them that this is important to stop them from bleeding
to death once you have the tourniquet tight enough you’ll allow the clip to
hold the rod you’ll put the remaining strap
through the clip and then you’ll take the windlass strap across we’ll take our
marking pen and we’ll write down the time of application that we put that
tourniquet in let’s say you’ve got somebody who has bleeding from a wound
and it’s in a place where you can’t put a tourniquet on or you don’t have a
tourniquet but you have something you can pack the wound with and you can do
direct pressure alright we have our gloves on here’s our wound and what
we’ll do is we’ll start to pack that wound with the gauze the patient won’t
like this is probably going to hurt and it is kind of icky but this will enhance
the effectiveness of your direct pressure particularly in those areas
that we call junctional areas the groin the shoulder and the neck
we’ll put this in until we have that wound all filled up and we have good
contact between the tissue and the gauze then you put the remaining gauze on top
and then we’ll go back to our direct pressure you’re gonna have your elbows
straight you’re gonna push down as hard as you can and you’re going to push down
all the way from your shoulders you may have to move the patient onto the ground
or move them off a piece of furniture onto the floor to ensure that you have
enough pressure between yourself and the patient and the floor this will be very
effective in stopping bleeding in those locations

First Aid for Burns

First Aid for Burns


– Hello, I’m Emma Hammett,
the founder and CEO of First Aid for Life
and onlinefirstaid.com, and the author of Burns,
Falls, and Emergency Calls, The Ultimate Guide to the
Prevention and Treatment of Childhood Accidents. Today I’m going to talk
to you about burns. Burns are scary. Burns cause long-term damage to the skin, and burns are something that first aid and prompt and appropriate first aid can make a massive difference to the amount of pain and scarring that somebody actually experiences, and the treatment for
burns is incredibly simple. Cool running water. People get really caught up in complicating the treatment for burns. Please don’t put anything else on a burn other than cool running water. That is the best thing to
actually cool down the burn. We are meat, and you are burning, so what we need to do
is cool down the burn. So if it is a scald, and
there is a hot liquid that’s been spilled onto someone, the quandary is do you take
the clothes off or don’t you? Well, the most important thing
is that you’re not removing anything that is stuck to the burn, because if it is stuck to the skin, and you try and remove it, you will rip off more of the skin. So the key thing is, if it is a child who has had a cup of hot
coffee split on them, and it was a cold day and they
were wearing a thick coat, if you’re able to take that
coat off as quickly as you can before the hot liquid has
actually gone through it and gone to their skin, then clearly that is a
very sensible thing to do. If however they were
wearing a cotton T-shirt and when you just try gently to remove it, there is some resistance
there, then leave it on, in which case you would then cool over the top of the clothing. You will be able to cool the burn better without the clothing. So if you are able to remove
it without removing anything that is stuck, then please do so. So the key thing is to cool,
cool, cool, cool, cool, and cool some more. And I can’t impress more
highly how important that is. So cooling the burn will actually
reverse some of the damage that has been done, and can actually lead
to a more severe burn becoming less severe, just because you have cooled
it swiftly and efficiently. Now, keep an eye open for signs of shock because shock is very serious, we’ll cover that in a separate video, but with shock, it is
made worse if someone is scared, in pain, and if they are cold. If you have someone that is burned, they’re likely to be scared. They’re likely to be in pain, and if you are then
cooling the burn on top, you need to make sure that
you’re cooling the burn and keeping the rest of the casualty wrapped up and as warm and
calm as you possibly can. So the key thing is, cool it,
cool it, cool it, cool it, cool it, cool running water is the best. If you don’t have access
to cool running water, then the advice is that any
other suitable liquid will do. And I’m not going to rush
and put coke on a burn, but seriously, if you’re in a supermarket and someone spills a hot drink over you, the easiest thing to do is to
grab some milk, for example, and that would be a very sensible thing, and they would have copious
amounts of milk in a supermarket in the refrigerator section
that you could then pour over to ensure that you’re
not more severely burned and everyone has free coffees going around in a lot of the supermarkets now, and that does have dangers. So, cool it, cool it, cool it. It’s cool running water,
it’s not iced water, so it doesn’t need to be freezing cold and in fact, if you were
to put ice on a burn, you could actually constrict
some of the blood vessels and slow down some of the healing. So it’s just cool running water. And it should be for at least 10 minutes, or until some of the burning
sensation begins to reduce, but that will be at least 10 minutes. Think about taking a joint
of meat out of the oven and leaving it to rest. It takes at least 10 minutes to cool. And so it needs a full 10 minutes plus of cooling. And time it, because if you are running something under cool running water and you have a distressed casualty, it will feel a lot longer
than the 10 minutes. So time it properly, because it does take at least 10 minutes to cool a burn properly. So cool it, cool it, cool
it, cool it, cool it. Don’t rush to dress it. If the burn is bigger than
a 50p piece on a child. Basically burns are measured
according to your palm. So if the burn is bigger than your hand, that is one percent. So for a child, for a baby, it’s tiny, so a 50p piece is a serious burn for them. So if it is red and blistered and it is larger than a 50p piece, I would be phoning an ambulance, and continuing to cool the
burn under cool running water during that time. So cool it, cool it, cool it. If you do want to transport
them to a hospital yourself, all burns should be assessed by a medical or health professional, if you do wish to transport, when I say that, all burns
that require dressing should be assessed by a
medical or health professional, should you wish to
transport them yourself, if it was something like a hand or a foot, you could put that into
a clean plastic food bag and actually depriving the burn of air will make it less painful. So make sure you have cooled
it for at least 15 minutes if you’re contemplating
dressing it yourself. You could use a little bit of cling film. Take a couple of the bits off the top so that it’s more sterile inside, and just loosely wrap it. You don’t want to put
anything tight over a burn, because the burn will swell. And if you put something tight, particularly if it’s round like this, as it expands and swells, you can actually constrict the blood flow, so just loosely over. Please do not attempt to
put any creams or potions or anything else on a burn other than a properly recognised
foil-packed burn dressing, again, once you have
cooled the burn properly. So nothing else that says for minor burns. Please don’t, because
anything that you put on we will have to scrape off in hospital, and that will hurt, and it makes life harder. Burns to the hands,
the feet, the genitals, the throat, and all the way around a limb for the reasons I’ve said
previously, are most serious, and if it is caused by a chemical burn, make sure you run under cool running water for at least 15 minutes and
be careful of the runoff because whatever’s burned them could end up burning you too. I hope that’s been helpful. There’s plenty more
resources on my website, www.firstaidforlife.org.uk, and there’s loads more in my book too, available on Amazon
and in good bookstores. Thank you for listening. That’s Emma Hammett, First Aid for Life.

How to Help a Choking Dog

How to Help a Choking Dog


If you suspect your dog is choking, the priority is always
to keep yourself safe. Stay as calm as you can, and help them by carefully restraining them. And then, you want to open their mouth, which is sometimes easier
done with two people, and safer done by two
people, and only do this if you are confident that you’re not putting yourself at risk. You would open their mouth,
and you would check inside to see if there is anything obvious, which you would just remove
with your finger and thumb. Don’t be tempted to put your hands in or finger sweep around
unless there is something very obvious that you can see, and it might be easier to use tweezers or forceps to remove anything. For a small dog, you would
hold them upside down and you would gently shake them, holding them by their thighs
and gently shake them. Boo is clearly not a small dog, so for Boo, what we are trying to do is to get her into a position
where gravity would help. So what we we do is we would hold behind her back legs and we put her in some sort of a
wheelbarrow type position to see if gravity will help
to dislodge that object. And you’d be looking to
see if anything comes out. She could be coughing. She could be retching. She could be really struggling. If that hasn’t worked, the next thing that you can do is a Heimlich
manoeuvre for animals. The way you do this is if you have a look down their chest,
there is a natural gap after their ribs, and it’s in that gap that you are going to put your hands. You’re gonna make a fist with one hand, and then, you’re going
to put the thumb part of your fist up underneath
her abdomen there, and with the other hand,
you’re gonna put it over the top, and from upwards,
you’re gonna push upwards towards her chest, and that will hopefully be dislodging the
obstruction by doing that. You would do that up to five times. If that hasn’t worked, get
the animal to the vet quickly. And even if it has worked, please get your animal checked out,
your dog checked out because having something
stuck can cause damage. It can cause grazes to
the back of their throat, and they really need to be seen by a vet to ensure that they’re fine.