How to Bandage A Sprain – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance

How to Bandage A Sprain – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance


If someone’s sprained an ankle, knee or elbow, you
can use a bandage to support the limb. To make sure you give the right kind of
support, bend the joint slightly and apply an ice pack and padding, and then
a bandage to help cool and support the injury. You need to wrap it either side of the injury too, to give enough support for the whole area. We’re going to demonstrate this technique on an ankle, but you could use it for an elbow or a knee. To bandage an ankle, use the roller bandage. Make sure you have the ankle raised and supported to start with, and then apply an ice pack and some
padding. Using the roller bandage, start with the tail and put it to the
inside of the foot, and then wrap it around one-and-a-half
times just to make sure that it doesn’t come off. Just going to lift up your leg a little bit… OK. It’s important to bandage from the toes to the knee because you need to make sure that you
cover from the joint before to the joint after the injury site. Then just keep on
going around and around. Keep on going until you get to the knee. And then, if you can, wrap the bandage around twice when you get to the knee and then just pin it in place. Does that feel OK? – Yes. To check circulation, squeeze the toenail for five seconds. When you let go, the colour should return within two
seconds. If it doesn’t, it means the bandage is too tight, and you need to loosen it off and
reapply it. Keep checking the circulation every 10 minutes because the ankle may still swell. So remember: when you’re bandaging a sprain, apply an ice pack, and then cover the injury with padding. Apply a roller bandage to hold the ice pack and padding in place and to help support the injury. Check circulation every 10 minutes and keep the injury elevated. And that’s how we bandage a sprain.

What To Do If Someone Has A Stroke, Signs & Symptoms – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance

What To Do If Someone Has A Stroke, Signs & Symptoms – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance


A stroke can occur when the blood supply to the brain is disrupted and starves the brain of oxygen. Strokes are most commonly caused by a clot, that blocks the flow of blood to a part of the brain Although some strokes may be caused by a ruptured blood vessel, that causes bleeding to the brain. Call 999 or 112 for emergency help immediately if you think someone has had a stroke. If you suspect someone is having a stroke, you can use the FAST guide to identify the key signs. F stands for facial weakness. Look at their mouth or eye, they may be droopy or can’t smile evenly. A – arm weakness. Ask them to raise both their arms, they may only be able to raise one. S – speech problems. They are unable to speak clearly or might not be able to understand what you’re saying to them. Ask them a question, such as, what is your name? Can they respond appropriately? T – time to call 999 or 112 for emergency help and tell them you suspect a stroke after using the FAST guide. While waiting for help to arrive, keep them comfortable, supported and reassure them. Do not give them anything to eat or drink, because it may be hard for them to swallow. Keep monitoring their level of response until help arrives. If they become unresponsive, prepare to treat an unresponsive casualty. So remember, to help someone who has had a stroke, use FAST. Facial weakness, arm weakness, speech problems means it’s time to call 999 or 112 for emergency help. And that’s how you help someone who is having a stroke. If this video has been helpful to you, help support St John Ambulance by going to sja.org.uk/donate

How to Bandage A Hand – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance

How to Bandage A Hand – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance


To bandage somebody’s hand, use a roller bandage. Place the bandage on the inside of the wrist,
just below the thumb. Wrap the bandage straight around the
wrist twice. Then, wrap the bandage from the inside of their wrist diagonally across the back of their hand up to the
nail of their little finger, straight across underneath the fingers,
and diagonally back across the back of the hand to the outside of their wrist. Pass the bandage under their wrist and repeat diagonal over the back of the hand, across the fingers and back again. Keep going the same way, bandaging diagonally across the hand like a figure of eight, but each time only cover about two-thirds the previous layer. Each new layer should be covering a third of new skin. Make sure you leave the tips of their fingers peeking through. Once you’ve covered the whole of the hand, wrap the bandage straight around the
wrist a couple times and secure with a pin or tape. To check the circulation, squeeze the fingernail for five seconds. When you let go, if the colour doesn’t come back within two seconds, it means the bandage is too tight and you need to loosen it a little bit. Keep checking the circulation every
10 minutes. So remember: when applying a hand bandage, use a roller bandage, make sure the bandage extends far beyond the injury site to ensure even pressure is applied to
the wound.

What to do if your Baby has a Head Injury – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance

What to do if your Baby has a Head Injury – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance


When your baby starts to crawl, they can bump their head on furniture or other objects and falls are common Most of the time the injury will be minor and they might not even cry. But sometimes a bump to the head can be more serious. If your baby has had a minor head injury, they may have a bump or bruise to the head and a wound. But they are still able to respond normally. If you think your baby has a minor head injury, sit them on your lap and hold something cold against the injury to help swelling. Like an ice pack or a frozen bag of vegetables wrapped in a tea towel. Do this for a maximum of 10 minutes. While you do this, try and assess their level of response Are their eyes open? Are they alert? Can they respond to you as you talk to them? If they only respond to voice, they’re drowsy. Do they only respond if you flick the bottom of their foot? Do they only respond to pain? Are they unresponsive to any of the above? If you are worried because they’re not alert or because the injury is serious then call 999 or 112 for emergency help. If they have any wounds, treat them by applying direct pressure to the wound. and keep checking their level of response. If they’ve had a serious knock to the head, they may have a serious head injury. and show some of these signs. They may be drowsy, they may have a headache, they may be dizzy, they may vomit. They may suffer a seizure or a fit, there may be fluid coming from their ears or nose. And they may be unresponsive. If you know that your baby has had a severe knock to the head, or you notice any of these signs, or think they’re getting worse, you should call 999 or 112 for emergency help and tell them that you suspect a serious head injury to a baby. While you’re waiting for help to arrive, try to keep your baby still in case they’ve suffered a neck injury. Check your baby’s breathing, and prepare to start CPR if they stop breathing. So remember, for a minor bump to the head, ease the pain and swelling with something cold and check their level of response. Treat any wound or bleeding if necessary. If you’re worried, or think it’s a serious head injury call 999 or 112 and keep checking your baby’s breathing. Prepare to start CPR if necessary. And that’s how you treat a baby who’s suffered a head injury. Thanks for watching. Help support St John Ambulance, donate today.

If Your Baby has a Severe Allergic Reaction – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance

If Your Baby has a Severe Allergic Reaction – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance


Sometimes our bodies come into contact
with things that can cause an allergic reaction, which may cause a rash or
sneezing. These may be uncomfortable but not life-threatening. However, a severe allergic reaction, which
is also known as anaphylactic shock, can develop in seconds and needs to be
treated quickly. Your baby may have a severe allergic
reaction to some foods, such as nuts, or animal hair or even to some medicines. If
your baby is having a severe allergic reaction you might see some of these signs. They
may get a red, itchy, raised rash. Their eyes may be itchy and watery. Their face
or lips may swell up. They may vomit or have diarrhoea. They may become wheezy or
find it difficult to breathe. They may either be very pale or very
flushed, and they may become very upset. If you think your baby is having a
severe allergic reaction, you need to get help soon as possible.
Dial 999 or 112 straightaway. Tell them that you think your baby is having a severe
allergic reaction and what might have caused it. Sit your baby on your lap and lean them
forward slightly to help their breathing while you’re waiting for help. If you
already know what your baby is allergic to and your doctor has prescribed
medication to treat an allergic reaction, like an EpiPen, give them the medication
in the usual way like your doctor has told you. If you think they are in shock,
lie them down and raise their legs. If your baby is unresponsive, if they are
not moving or making a sound and they’re not breathing normally you’ll need to
give them CPR. So remember: call 999 or 112. Give allergy
medicine if you have it. Sit your baby on your lap and lean them forwards to help with
their breathing. If your baby is unresponsive and not breathing normally,
start CPR. And that’s how we treat a baby with a severe allergic reaction. Thanks for watching. Help support St
John Ambulance – donate today.

Heart Attack Symptoms & How to Treat a Heart Attack – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance

Heart Attack Symptoms & How to Treat a Heart Attack – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance


A heart attack happens when the supply of blood to the heart muscle is suddenly blocked usually by a blood clot. Lots of people make a full recovery, but there’s a serious risk that the heart might stop beating called a cardiac arrest. It’s vital that you help someone who is suffering a heart attack and call 999 or 112 for emergency help straight away. People who suffer from angina are at an increased risk of having a heart attack. Angina is chest pain, often described as a heaviness or a squeezing pain in the chest. The pain should ease within a few minutes if the person rests straight away and takes their angina medication. If the pain does not settle, it is safer to presume that it is a heart attack. If you think someone is having a heart attack, they may show some of the following signs. Pain in the chest, which could spread to the jaw, neck or arms. Breathlessness. Discomfort in the stomach similar to severe indigestion. Collapsing without warning. They may suddenly feel faint or dizzy. They may experience a feeling of impending doom. Pale skin, with blueness at the lips.They may have a rapid, weak or irregular pulse, sweating or be gasping for air. If you do come across someone with these symptoms call 999 or 112 immediately and say you think that they’re having a heart attack. After you have made the call, help move them into a comfortable position to help ease the strain on the heart. The best type of position is sitting on the floor with their head and shoulders supported and their knees bent. Place cushions behind them and under their knees. Then if you can and if they’re not allergic, give them an aspirin tablet 300mg and tell them to chew it slowly. Aspirin should not be given to someone under the age of 16. If they have angina medication you can help them to take it. Encourage them to rest. While you wait for help to arrive, monitor their breathing, pulse and level of response. Try to stay calm to avoid unnecessary stress. If they become unresponsive at any time, open their airway, check their breathing and be prepared to treat an unresponsive casualty. You may need to do CPR. So remember, if you think someone is having a heart attack, call 999 or 112 immediately. Help move them into a comfortable position and encourage them to rest. Give them 300mg of aspirin to chew and help them with their angina medication if they have some. While you wait for help keep checking their breathing, pulse and level of response. And that’s how you help someone who may be having a heart attack. If this video has been helpful to you, help support St John Ambulance, by going to sja.org.uk/donate

What to do if Your Baby is Choking – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance

What to do if Your Baby is Choking – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance


As you start weaning your baby small
items of food may get lodged in their throat and they may choke. They can also
choke on small toys or household items. If a baby under one year old is choking,
you’ll notice that they’ll be unable to cry, cough or breathe. What we’re going to do now is administer
some back blows. So first of all you need to lay your baby face down along your
thigh, making sure you support their head and their neck. Next we’re going to administer those directly
between the shoulder blades using the heel of your hand. Give up to five sharp
back blows making sure after each one whatever it is hasn’t come out. If the
back blows don’t work we need to move on to giving some chest thrusts. So we need
to turn them over so they’re lying face up, again making sure that their head and
their neck are supported. Put two fingers in line with the arm pit in the center of
the chest pushing down sharply administer up to five chests thrusts. If
this doesn’t work call 999 or 112 for emergency help repeat five back blows and five chest
thrusts until help arrives. If they become unresponsive you will
need to start CPR. So remember if your baby is choking, check the mouth slap it out squeeze it out and that’s
how we treat a choking baby. Thanks for watching. Help support St John
Ambulance, donate today.

How to Make A Sling – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance

How to Make A Sling – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance


You should use a sling to stop someone’s arm moving, to protect it and prevent further damage. There are two
types of sling: an arm sling and an elevation sling, and both can be
made using a triangular bandage. The difference between these two types of sling, is that arm sling holds the arm in a horizontal or slightly
raised position. It treats upper arm injuries wrist injuries, somebody who can bend their elbow and also for a rib fracture. An elevation sling holds the arm in a
raised position, with the fingertips touching the shoulder. It can help support the arm. It can also
help control bleeding from the hand or the arm and also help to reduce swelling. To make an arm sling, ask the casualty to support their arm. Can you just hold it for me? And then use your triangular bandage and gently pass it underneath their arm and over their shoulder, and leave the long bit facing down. Then, bring the top bit around to the opposite shoulder, and the bit that’s hanging down, bring that up to meet it. If you just let go of your arm for me now, and then re-support it. Just tie a reef knot and then tuck the corners underneath, and make sure the whole of the arm is supported, down to the little finger. With the bit that’s left over, just twist it until it becomes nice and
tight and it snugly fits in around the elbow. To make an elevation sling, first ask the casualty to support their
injured arm. If you just support it there for me… and the fingertips should be touching
the shoulder. Lay your triangular bandage over that injured arm. Just get the casualty to hold it in place – just hold it there for me. Come underneath the arm, around the back, and then tie using a reef knot. Then, just tuck the points under. With the bit that’s left over, just twist it until it’s nice and tight, and it fits snugly in by the elbow. To check circulation, you need to squeeze
the fingernail for five seconds. When you let go, the colour should return within two
seconds. If it doesn’t, it means the sling is too tight and you need to loosen it a little bit. Keep checking the circulation every 10 minutes. So remember: there are two types of
sling. You need to know which one to use for
each condition and how to apply them.

How to Treat Burns and Scalds – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance

How to Treat Burns and Scalds – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance


Burns and scalds are damage to the skin
caused by heat. A burn is usually caused by dry heat and a scald is caused by wet heat. You need to stop the burning by cooling the burn as soon as possible. This will decrease the severity of the
injury. If someone has a severe burn, they may develop shock, which is a
life-threatening condition and they will need to get to the hospital as soon as
possible. There are five signs which may be seen
when someone has a burn or scald. Red skin, swelling, blisters on the skin,
peeling skin or the skin may be white or scorched. If someone has a burn or scald, move them away from the source of the heat to stop the burn getting any worse, then start
cooling the burn as quickly as possible. Place it under cool running water for at
least 10 minutes or until the pain feels better. Don’t use ice, gels or creams as this
could damage the tissue and increase the risk of infection. If the burn looks like
a serious burn, or it’s to a child, is larger than the size of the casualty’s
hand, is a burn to their face, hands or feet, or if it’s a deep burn then call
999 or 112 for emergency help. If possible, get someone to do this for you
while you continue to cool the burn or use the speakerphone if you’re on your
own. Gently remove any jewellery or clothing
near the burn unless it is stuck to it. When the burn is
cooled cover it lengthways with cling film, get rid of the first two turns of
film and then apply it lengthways over the burn. Use a plastic bag if you have
no kitchen film, this will protect the burn from infection. Never burst any blisters which may have
formed as this may increase the risk of infection. Do not use ointments or fats to treat
the burns as this may increase the risk of infection. Special burns dressings and
gels are not recommended. You may also need to treat the casualty
for shock. So remember when treating burns and
scalds, move the casualty away from the heat source, place the burn under cool
running water for at least 10 minutes. If it’s larger than their hand, a deep burn,
they’re a child, the burn is on their face, their hands on their feet call 999 or
112 for emergency help. Treat them for shock if necessary. And that’s how you
treat a burn or scald. If this video has been helpful to you
help support St John Ambulance by going to sja.org.uk/donate

How To Treat A Severe Allergic Reaction, Signs & Symptoms – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance

How To Treat A Severe Allergic Reaction, Signs & Symptoms – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance


An allergy is a body’s unexpected reaction of something it has come into contact with. Something that triggers an allergic reaction is called an allergen. One of the most common allergens is plant pollen, which often causes hayfever. Other allergens include animal hair, insect stings, specific drugs and foods, especially penicillin, shell fish and nuts. A severe allergic reaction can happen just a few seconds after the person has come into contact with the allergen. It can affect the whole body and if not treated quickly enough, can potentially be lead to death. This is called anaphylactic shock. Here’s what to look for if you think someone is having an allergic reaction: With a mild allergy, they may have blotchy, itchy skin. Itchy red eyes or nose. Their hands or feet may swell. They may have abdominal pain, which can lead to vomiting or diarrhoea. With a severe allergy, there may be wheezing or difficulty breathing and they may complain that their chest feels tight. The tongue or throat may also swell They may have anxiety or show signs of shock. If you think someone is having a severe allergic reaction, they may have some of the symptoms mentioned above. Or they may tell you that they’ve been exposed to something they know they’re allergic to. You need to get them emergency help as fast as you can. Even if their symptoms are mild, but they’ve been exposed to something to which they are severely allergic. Call 999 or 112 straight away Tell ambulance control that you think someone is having a severe allergic reaction and give them any information you have about what may have triggered it. For example, an insect sting, or certain foods like peanuts. If a person knows they have a severe reaction, they may have medication with them such as an auto injector. Check if they have one and if they do, help them use it Follow the instructions on the auto injector, then hold it against their leg for 10 seconds then remove it and massage the leg for a further 10 seconds. Remember they still need medical help even if they’ve used their auto injector. While waiting for help to arrive, help them into a comfortable sitting position, leaning them forwards slightly to help their breathing. Keep monitoring their level of response. If they become unresponsive at any point, prepare to treat an unresponsive casualty. A second auto injector can be used if there is no improvement or the symptoms return. So remember, always get medical help If you think someone is having a severe allergic reaction, call 999 or 112. Help them with their auto injector, if they have one And make sure to monitor them and keep them comfortable. And that’s how you treat someone with a severe allergic reaction. If this video has been helpful to you, help support St John Ambulance by going to sja.org.uk/donate